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¿Wappin? For our Colombian neighbors

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last andaki

For our Colombian neighbors
Para nuestros vecinos colombianos

Artistas Colombianas – Un Paso Hacía la Paz
https://youtu.be/oW6r0PO0s50

Yusuf Islam – Peace Train
https://youtu.be/gLG91tOLPdQ

Yair Dalal – Zaman El Salam
https://youtu.be/umkKuuR6ECE

Bob Marley – Positive Vibration
https://youtu.be/Yu-bstFBQW4

Inti Illimani – Tatati
https://youtu.be/ybyqXlSmifk

Pink Floyd – The Final Cut
https://youtu.be/BmNHuH4S8xs

Pascuala Ilabaca – Maldigo del Alto Cielo
https://youtu.be/PkYC8fbtqok

The Original Caste – One Tin Soldier
https://youtu.be/cTBx-hHf4BE

Spirit – Why Can’t I Be Free? / Love Has Found a Way
https://youtu.be/CxlOgCH_eMY

David Bowie – Heroes
https://youtu.be/AGOx0ZpMrrU

Rubén Blades & Jerry Garcia – Muevete
https://youtu.be/ZWfYew3s_Nw

The Judds – Love Can Build a Bridge
https://youtu.be/wmxJ7OzhCTY

Zoé – No Me Destruyas
https://youtu.be/z2QNVW-vwBE

The Selected Few – Selection Train
https://youtu.be/gW1gICRVGIw

Shakira – Imagine
https://youtu.be/8-3wIW1Rpiw

 

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Gandásegui, Fidel también le escribió a Trump

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pro-Fidel
Trabajadores panameños rinden homenaje a Fidel Castro frente al busto de José Martí en el Parque Porras. Foto por José F. Ponce.

Fidel también le escribió a Trump

por Marco A. Gandásegui, hijo

Cuando el presidente de EEUU, Barack Obama, visitó La Habana hace apenas unos pocos meses, sentía que cada uno de sus movimientos era seguido por la mirada atenta del comandante en jefe de la Revolución cubana, Fidel Castro R. Al lado del líder cubano todos los aguerridos guajiros de la isla mayor de las Antillas estaban vigilantes.

Detrás de Obama hay una historia cincuentenaria de invasiones, asaltos, agresiones económicas y humanitarias que le han costado a los cubanos vidas, bienes y felicidad. Un total de 11 presidentes norteamericanos han hecho todo lo posible por acabar con la Revolución cubana. Incluso, antes del triunfo de la Revolución, durante 60 años, EEUU sometió a la isla a una especie de protectorado al servicio de las mafias que controlan el tráfico de ‘blancas’, de ‘drogas ilícitas’ y armas de guerra (aún activas en Norte, Centro y Sur América).

Fidel ha muerto, pero la Revolución sigue viva y es a través de este proceso que mueve a millones de cubanos y a miles de millones de mujeres y hombres en todo el mundo, que el comandante seguirá vigilante y su voz se escuchará por muchas generaciones por venir. Existe la falsa idea en Wall Street, y en las mentes de quienes explotan a los pueblos del mundo, que pueden derrotar a la Revolución cubana penetrando su economía con promesas de espejitos. A cambio de juguetitos, los cubanos deben entregar su soberanía a Washington y, de paso, el gobierno a los especuladores cubanos que ladran sin cesar desde Miami.

Durante su visita a La Habana, el presidente Obama dijo que, “vine aquí para dejar atrás los últimos vestigios de la guerra fría en las Américas. Vine extendiendo la mano de amistad al pueblo cubano”. Fidel le respondió “no, muchas gracias”, en una carta publicada posteriormente. El comandante cubano agrego que “no necesitamos que el imperio nos regale nada. Nuestros esfuerzos serán legales y pacíficos, porque es nuestro compromiso con la paz y la fraternidad de todos los seres humanos que vivimos en este planeta”.

Obama abandona la Casa Blanca en apenas siete semanas. Se lleva con él su estilo de política exterior. En su lugar, aparecerá en Washington el actual presidente-electo, Donald Trump. Tiene un estilo totalmente diferente. El objetivo sigue siendo el mismo: Destruir la Revolución cubana. En vez de la llamada ‘política suave’, Trump inaugurará su estilo de ‘política dura’. Cuestionará todo lo hecho por Obama mediante ‘órdenes ejecutivas’ y amenazará con suspender las relaciones diplomáticas así como las pequeñas ventanas abiertas a los viajeros norteamericanos con destino a Cuba.

Definirá su comercio exterior – incluyendo inversiones en el extranjero – sobre la base de la lealtad política. Con Trump surge la pregunta si su política exterior será diseñada sólo para beneficiar a la fracción de la clase capitalista que controla el Congreso y las oficinas del poder ejecutivo. Puede también estar orientada a apoyar sus propios intereses como especulador.

En 1998, un consultor de Trump viajó a La Habana con una propuesta para abrir una cadena de hoteles, con casinos, clubes y acceso a playas. El gobierno cubano lo rechazó sin mayores consideraciones. ¿Estará el presidente-electo de EEUU pensando en negocios de este tipo? ¿Qué puede ofrecer a cambio? ¿Le pagará a Cuba los miles de millones de dólares que le debe por daños y perjuicios a la economía de la isla? ¿Piensa devolver la bahía de Guantánamo que ocupa ilegalmente? ¿Levantará el bloqueo contra la isla?

Trump le recuerda a sus amigos y enemigos, dentro y fuera de EEUU, que es un ‘dealer’. Es decir, un negociador. Se cree el mejor negociador del mundo. Al pueblo norteamericano le prometió que una vez en la Casa Blanca haría los mejores negocios para crear más empleo y hacer a “EEUU grande nuevamente”.

Fidel falleció, pero ya le recordó a Trump (cuando le escribió a Obama) que todos los cubanos no se olvidan del “bloqueo despiadado que ha durado ya casi 60 años”. Que “nadie se haga la ilusión de que el pueblo de este país renunciará a la gloria, a los derechos y a la riqueza espiritual que ha ganado con el desarrollo de la educación, la ciencia y la cultura”.

“Somos capaces de producir los alimentos y las riquezas materiales que necesitamos con el esfuerzo y la inteligencia de nuestro pueblo. No necesitamos que el imperio nos regale nada”.

[Lee más sobre Fidel Castro Ruz y su legado, desde perspectivas diversas en español e inglés, en nuestra página de Facebook.]

 

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Castro Rodríguez, Del tirano di todo (primera parte)

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Del tirano di todo (I)

por Manuel Castro Rodríguez

 

Es criminal quien sonríe al crimen; quien lo ve y no lo ataca; quien se sienta a la mesa de los que se codean con él o le sacan el sombrero interesado; quienes reciben de él el permiso de vivir.
José Martí

 

La objetividad no implica imparcialidad; reconozco que mi opinión está parcializada, porque fui víctima del castrismo, tanto dentro como fuera de Cuba. Millones de cubanos somos damnificados del régimen totalitario, sangriento y dinástico que instauró Fidel Castro Ruz, hecho a su imagen y semejanza.

Como reconoce Juanita Castro, hermana de Fidel y Raúl: “La gran tragedia de Cuba empezó con Batista y siguió con Fidel”, quien pasó rápidamente de humanista a totalitarista.

En el Manifiesto de la Sierra Maestra -que se puede leer al final de este subdominio-, firmado por Raúl Chibás, Felipe Pazos y Fidel Castro Ruz el 12 de julio de 1957 y publicado dos semanas después, el 28 de julio, en la revista cubana Bohemia, se promete restaurar la Constitución de 1940 -socialdemócrata e inspirada por la Constitución mexicana de 1917 y la española de 1931- y celebrar elecciones generales “en el término de un año”. Sin embargo, al año siguiente del triunfo revolucionario, el comandante Raúl Chibás y Felipe Pazos tuvieron que exilarse.

El 18 de enero de 1959, dos semanas después del triunfo de la revolución cubana, salió publicada la segunda parte de la Edición de la Libertad de la revista Bohemia, en la que Raúl Castro declaró:

Sin embargo, veinte días después, el 7 de febrero de 1959, Fidel Castro sepultó la Constitución de 1940, eliminando de un plumazo el espíritu democrático liberal de la Revolución de 1959. Con ello se demuestra que es falso que las represalias económicas norteamericanas –tomadas un año después- lo arrojaran en los brazos de la Unión Soviética. Su obcecación por el poder absoluto y permanente fue lo que lo llevó a ello.

Desde su nacimiento, el castrismo ha chorreado sangre por todos sus poros. La tiranía castrista es responsable de enormes crímenes, no sólo por la cantidad sino por la monstruosidad de esos crímenes, que incluye el asesinato de ancianos, mujeres y niños. Por ejemplo, la masacre del remolcador 13 de Marzo: La Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH) dictaminó:

Las pruebas demuestran claramente que el hundimiento del barco remolcador ’13 de Marzo’ no fue un accidente sino un hecho premeditado e intencional.

Gracias a un buque de bandera griega, 33 cubanos pudieron sobrevivir a la masacre. Vean los videos con las denuncias que hicieron los sobrevivientes, entre ellos, la denuncia hecha por dos madres a quienes les asesinaron sus pequeños hijos. Vean la edad de los niños cubanos que fueron asesinados por el castrismo el 13 de julio de 1994.

El tirano declaró el 5 de agosto de 1994, el día del Maleconazo y tres semanas después de ocurrida la masacre del remolcador:

Tan pronto llegaron las noticias del accidente del remolcador, se realizó de inmediato una investigación profunda y exhaustiva,…

El dictamen de la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH) desmintió al peor dictador que ha sufrido Occidente:

la investigación realizada por el Estado cubano no habría sido suficientemente exhaustiva si tenemos en cuenta que no se rescató la embarcación hundida -la cual contenía en su cuarto de máquinas muchos de los cadáveres que perecieron en el naufragio- ni los cuerpos que yacían en el fondo del mar.

Según la CIDH:

…el Estado cubano no emprendió con seriedad y como un deber jurídico propio las investigaciones en el presente caso. El resultado de ello es la impunidad en que se mantiene el mismo. Por consiguiente, la Comisión considera que el Estado cubano por omisión violó el derecho a la justicia…

¿Por qué han trascurrido más de veinte años sin que se haya celebrado un juicio, tal y como se hace por accidentes de tránsito o de trenes?

Se ha documentado el costo en vidas humanas de esa entelequia llamada revolución cubana. Hasta el 15 de diciembre de 2008, se tiene:

  • Fusilamientos, asesinatos y desapariciones: 5.732.
  • Muertes en prisión por negligencia médica, suicidio y accidente: 515.
  • Trece presos políticos cubanos han muerto en huelga de hambre.
  • Se ha podido documentar que 216 mujeres y niñas cubanas murieron por razones políticas de 1959 a 2003. Esa cifra no incluye las mujeres y niñas que resultaron muertas al intentar irse de Cuba.
  • Se estima que al tratar de escapar de Cuba han muerto en el mar más de setenta y siete mil personas. Esta cantidad se ha obtenido mediante un procedimiento econométrico.
  • Se estima que en guerras en el extranjero han muerto más de trece mil cubanos.

El costo del castrismo en vidas humanas ha continuado aumentando con el experimentado asesino serial Raúl Castro al frente de la tiranía. Para mayor detalle, puede consultar la Base de Datos.

El tirano no dudó en ordenar el fusilamiento de compañeros de armas, incluyendo el de comandantes como Humberto Sorí Marín y William Morgan. Rápidamente convirtió a Cuba en el Archipiélago Gulag de Occidente. En la década del sesenta unos sesenta mil cubanos -incluyendo a casi un centenar de mujeres- estaban presos por motivos políticos, la mayoría de los cuales habian sido condenados a largas penas de prisión.

Por ejemplo, Mario Chanes de Armas -compañero de Fidel Castro Ruz en el asalto al cuartel Moncada y en la expedición del yate Granma- cumplió 30 años de cárcel; otro luchador contra la dictadura de Batista, Eusebio Peñalver, estuvo encarcelado por la dictadura militar cubana durante más de 28 años -es el preso político de raza negra que más tiempo ha cumplido, superando a Nelson Mandela.

Entre las innumerables tropelías, asesinatos, torturas y otros crímenes cometidos por la tiranía castrista, el asesinato de mujeres y niños ocupa un lugar destacado.

Sólo la represión más brutal e implacable ha hecho posible el mantenimiento de ese régimen nefasto. Marxistas, liberales, socialistas, trotskistas, democristianos y anarquistas han sufrido difamación, ostracismo, destierro, cárcel, tortura y asesinato.

El filósofo socialista argentino Óscar del Barco reconoce que

Los llamados revolucionarios se convirtieron en asesinos seriales, desde Lenin, Trotzky, Stalin y Mao, hasta Fidel Castro y Ernesto Guevara.

El tirano fue el clásico lobo cubierto con una piel de oveja, engañó a todos y de qué forma. La revista Readers Digest (Selecciones) de enero de 1959 lo presenta como un joven de formación católica y refuta los rumores sobre una posible infiltración comunista en las filas del Ejército Rebelde. Él exhibe orgullosamente su collar con la imagen de la Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, la Patrona de Cuba. Del cuello de la mayoría de los integrantes del Ejército Rebelde cuelgan collares e imágenes de Santa Bárbara y la Caridad del Cobre. El sacerdote católico Guillermo Sardiñas es el capellán del Ejército Rebelde y Fidel Castro Ruz su Comandante en Jefe.

Él también desmentía la influencia comunista; por ejemplo, el 15 de enero de 1959 declaró: “yo no soy comunista; estoy diciendo la verdad”. Cuatro meses despues, el 8 de mayo ratificó: “nuestra revolución no es comunista”.

El tirano traicionó a todos los que lucharon por una Cuba libre, independiente y democrática. Canek Sánchez Guevara, el nieto mayor de Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara, declaró:

La primera traición es que no se quería hacer tanto una revolución como recuperar la Constitución de 1940 y llegar a unas elecciones. Luego el proceso revolucionario se radicalizó, pero la propiedad privada pasó toda al Estado, que se convirtió en el nuevo patrón: los ciudadanos trabajan para el Estado, cobran del Estado y acaban gastando en el Estado; es el sueño de todo oligarca.

Martha Frayde Barraqué, médica cubana que luchó contra la tiranía de Batista y después sufrió la represión castrista, expresa:

Fidel Castro nos engaño a todos, empezando por mí. Los visionarios del primer momento fueron la minoría.

Samuel Farber, académico cubano que durante más de medio siglo ha sido una figura destacada de la izquierda internacional, señala:

De hecho, durante 1959 hubo una lucha ideológica dentro del Gobierno revolucionario entre los liberales como Roberto Agramonte y Elena Mederos, los antiimperialistas radicales como David Salvador, Faustino Pérez y Marcelo Fernández, y el ala procomunista encabezada por Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara y Raúl Castro, aliados en aquel momento con el PSP (Partido Socialista Popular) de los viejos estalinistas cubanos.

El tirano logró crear un sistema de desinformación de tal magnitud -que habría sido envidiado por el propio Joseph Goebbels, el ministro de propaganda nazi-, que le permitió que durante mucho tiempo sus crímenes casi no fueran conocidos. Aunque él mismo y la mayoría de la izquierda internacional han hecho lo imposible por hacerle creer al mundo que fue un pensador del marxismo contemporáneo, se ha demostrado fehacientemente que jamás fue marxista.

La revista Life entrevistó en enero de 1959 al comandante René de los Santos Ponce, un apasionado anticomunista. René era primo materno de mi padre y cercano colaborador de Fidel desde finales de la década del cuarenta. Por orden de este, René creó y dirigió el Departamento de Investigaciones del Ejército Rebelde (DIER), el antecesor del tenebroso Departamento de Seguridad del Estado. René fue jefe militar de Pinar del Río y Camagüey, y durante dos décadas ocupó altos cargos en el Partido Comunista, entre ellos, tercer jefe de su Comité de Control y Revisión. Hace unos veinte años hablé con René por útima vez; permanecía inalterable su anticomunismo y su fidelidad al tirano.

El 17 de abril de 1955, salió publicado en la revista Bohemia un artículo de Francisco Ichaso Macías (1901-1962), una de las figuras más destacadas del periodismo cubano, en el que se expresa:

Somos un pueblo desconcertante. Amamos la democracia, la soberanía, la libertad, y sin embargo hemos actuado como si todo eso nos importase un comino. Todos queremos la democracia, pero nos falta, en cambio, la voluntad para hacer por ella, todos los días, el trabajo menudo que exige su conservación. Nos acordamos de la democracia, como de Santa Bárbara, cuando truena poderosamente sobre ella.

Efectivamente, el cubano es un pueblo desconcertante. Si en 1959 los cubanos se hubieran acordado de la democracia, no hubiesen permitido que Fidel Castro Ruz incumpliese su compromiso con el pueblo cubano, recogido en el Manifiesto de la Sierra Maestra; si en 1959 los cubanos se hubieran acordado de la democracia, no hubiesen permitido que inmediatamente después de llegar al poder violase los derechos humanos y el debido proceso a los integrantes de la tiranía batistiana que cayeron en sus manos. Por ejemplo, los fusilamientos masivos y el segundo juicio a los aviadores.

Los sucesos ocurridos durante los tres primeros meses de 1959 debieron ser suficiente para que los cubanos se percatasen que los hermanos Castro no se guiaban por principios democráticos; esos hechos fueron el preámbulo de lo que vendría después, mucho peor que la tiranía de Batista –durante la misma se mantuvo la independencia del poder judicial y la libertad de prensa, excepto por cortos períodos en que se decretaba la censura, por lo que la población sabía que estaba ocurriendo algo que afectaba al gobierno, que no quería que se supiese.

Tres generaciones de cubanos hemos esperado infructuosamente que se realicen las elecciones en que se comprometió Fidel Castro Ruz. Mientras tanto, la comunidad internacional continúa guardando silencio cómplice. Los gobernantes de España, Uruguay y Chile no pueden alegar que desconocen las graves y sistemáticas violaciones a los derechos humanos realizados por la gerontocracia estalinista cubana, porque durante casi un año les estuve informando semanalmente de ello a los parlamentarios chilenos, uruguayos y españoles.

Aunque Fidel Castro Ruz murió en la cama, sin poder ser sometido a juicio, la historia lo condenará porque se ha ganado un lugar entre los dictadores más crueles de la era moderna; se codea con Pinochet, Stalin, Franco y Hitler.

El tirano ha muerto, pero todavía Cuba es el único país occidental donde es ilegal ser opositor. Cuánto dolor se hubiese ahorrado el pueblo cubano, si el mayor asesino serial y estafador nacido en las Américas hubiese muerto antes de abordar en el puerto de Tuxpan (México) el yate Granma, que lo llevaría a Cuba junto a 81 expedicionarios para comenzar una guerra de guerrillas contra el dictador Fulgencio Batista, guerra en la que Fidel Castro Ruz nunca combatió, al igual que tampoco lo hizo en el Moncada. ¡Qué clase de Comandante en Jefe, el clásico capitán araña!

(Continuará)

[Lee más sobre Fidel Castro Ruz y su legado, desde perspectivas diversas en español e inglés, en nuestra página de Facebook.]

 

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Avnery, The Arabs did it

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apartheid system

The Arabs did it

by Uri Avnery — Gush Shalom

When my parents married in Germany, just before World War I, among the gifts was a document attesting that a tree had been planted in their name in Palestine.

My father was an early Zionist. Popular Jewish humor in Germany at that time had it that “a Zionist is a Jew who wants to take money from another Jew in order to settle a third Jew in Palestine.” My father certainly was not planning to go to Palestine himself.

Palestine was then a country bereft of ornamental trees. The Arab inhabitants cultivated olive trees, from which they made their scant living, and at that time the citrus trees were introduced. The olive tree is native — already in the Biblical story of Noah’s ark, the dove fetches an olive leaf as a sign of life.

According to popular legend, during that war the Turkish administration cut down the trees in order to build a railway across the Sinai peninsula and dislodge the British from the Suez Canal. However, the British crossed the Sinai in the other direction and conquered Palestine.

After that war the Zionists started to come to the country en masse. Among many other things, they started to plant trees in large quantities. Real forests sprang up, though compared with Russian or European forests they were pitiful.

The Zionists did not ask themselves why the country was bereft of so many kinds of trees. The obvious answer was that the Arabs didn’t care, that’s just the kind of people they are. No love for the country. No love for trees.

The Zionist movement was full of self-confidence. They could do anything they set their mind to. They hated the Palestinian landscape as it was. They were going to create a different country. When David Ben-Gurion, a 20-year old youngster, landed at Jaffa in 1906, he was utterly disgusted. “Is this the land of our fathers?” he cried out.

So the Zionists set out to change the landscape. They imported beautiful trees from all over the world and planted forests wherever they could: along the road from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, on Mount Carmel and many other places. They were beautiful.

The new immigrants did not ask themselves why the country, which had been populated since the beginning of time and remained so continuously to this day, had been so empty of these kinds of trees. Obviously, it was the fault of the Arabs.

Actually, the reason was quite different. Palestine suffers from an extreme shortage of rainfall. Every few years or so there is a drought, the country dries up, and fires break out all over the place. The trees which are not suited to this country just burn up.

Six years ago there was a warning. A large fire broke out on Mount Carmel. It consumed large portions of the forest and killed 47 policemen, who were caught by the fire while on their way to evacuate a prison.

Two weeks ago it happened in earnest. For eight months there was hardly a drop of rain. A strong, hot, east wind blew in from the desert. The land dried up. Any little spark could have started a major fire.

Suddenly the land was on fire. About 150 separate fires broke out, many of them near Haifa, Israel’s third largest town. Haifa is beautiful, rather like Naples, and several of its suburbs are surrounded by trees. No one had thought about safe distances or such.

Several neighborhoods caught fire. Almost eighty thousand inhabitants had to be evacuated, leaving their life-long belongings behind. Many apartments were destroyed by fire. It was heart-breaking.

The fire-fighters did their best. They worked around the clock. No lives were lost. With hoses on the ground and light fire-fighting airplanes in the air, they gradually brought the calamity under control.

How did the fires break out? Under the prevailing climatic conditions, any little spark could have caused a major disaster. A campfire not properly extinguished, a burning cigarette thrown from a passing car, an overturned hookah.

But that is not dramatic enough for news media, and even less for politicians. Soon enough the country was full of accusations: The Arabs Did It. Of course. Who else? TV was full of people who had actually seen Arabs setting forests alight.

Then Binyamin Netanyahu appeared on screen. Clad in a fashionable battle-dress, surrounded by his minions, he declared that it was all the work of Arab terrorists. It was an “Intifada of Fire.” Fortunately, Israel has a savior: he himself. He had taken control, summoned an American supertanker and several other foreign fire-fighting planes. Israelis could go back to sleep.

In reality, all this was nonsense. The brave fire-fighters and policemen had already done their job. Netanyahu’s intervention was superfluous, indeed harmful.

During the last great fire, six years ago, on the Carmel, Netanyahu had played the same role and summoned a giant American fire-fighting plane. It had done a good job over the forest. This time, near human neighborhoods, it could do nothing. In settled neighborhoods, the super-tanker was useless. Netanyahu summoned it, had himself photographed with it, and that was that.

The accusation of the Arab citizens as responsible for the catastrophe was much more serious. When Netanyahu raised it, he was widely believed.

The semi-fascist minister of education, Naftali Bennett, argued that the fire proved that the country belongs to the Jews, since the Arabs had set it on fire.

Many Arab citizens were rounded up and interrogated. Most were released. In the end it appeared that perhaps about two percent of the fires were started by Arab youngsters as acts of revenge.

Haifa is a mixed city, with a large Arab population. Generally, relations between Arabs and Jews there are good, sometimes even cordial. The two communities faced the new danger together, Arab villages opened their homes to Jewish refugees from the fire. Mahmoud Abbas, the chief of the Palestinian Authority in the occupied territories, also sent his firefighters into Israel to help out.

Netanyahu’s incendiary speeches, making wild (and quite unproven) accusations against the Arab citizens and against Arab workers from the occupied territories, did not catch on.

So this political fire, too, was suppressed before it could do too much damage. As the days pass, the accusations recede, but the damage they caused remains.

(When I served in the army, long ago, my company was awarded the honorary title “Samson’s Foxes.” Samson, the biblical hero, attached firebrands to the tails of foxes and sent them into the fields of the Philistines.)

The fire should provide food for thought.

If Netanyahu and his minions are right and “the Arabs” are intent on throwing us out of the country by any means, including fire, what is the answer?

The easy answer is: Throw them out, instead.

Logical, but impracticable. There are now more than six and a half million Arab Palestinians in Greater Israel — Israel proper, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), and the Gaza Strip. The number of Jews is about the same. In today’s world, you just cannot expel such numbers.

So we are condemned to live close together — either in two states, a proposal rejected by Netanyahu, or in one state, which would be either an apartheid state or a bi-national state.

If one believes, as Netanyahu and his followers do, that every Arab is a potential “fire terrorist” — how will anyone in the joint state be able to sleep at night?

Only some Arabs have guns. Only some have cars, with which to run over Jews. Only some can make explosives. But everyone has matches. Given a dry season, the sky is the limit.

By the way, just by chance, this week I saw a German TV program about a Swiss village, high up in the Alps. From time to time, a very dry hot wind, called Foehn, blows over it from the south. Twice in living memory the village has burnt down. All without an Arab in sight.

In Israel, the fire brigades belong to the local authorities, providing patronage and salaries to local party hacks.

In June 1968, as a young member of the Knesset, I came up with a revolutionary proposal: to abolish all the local fire-fighting departments and set up a united, national fire-fighting service, like the police. Such a force, I argued, could plan for all eventualities, prepare adequate equipment and allocate the necessary resources.

Contrary to their habit of heaping abuse on my proposals, my adversaries took this one seriously. The minister in charge acknowledged that it was a good idea, but added that “its time has not yet come.”

Now, 48 years later, the time has evidently still not arrived.

Instead, the Great Fire has.

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De Saint Malo, Gobierno defiende a los estafadores internacionales

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her
Toque aquí, aquí, aquí, aquí, aquí y aquí para aprender sobre la gente protegida por ella y Varela….

Comunicado sobre situación de periodista holandés

por el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores

La Cancillería panameña ha brindado toda el apoyo posible a las autoridades y Embajada de los Países Bajos en Panamá, en relación con el ciudadano Okke Ornstein, quien enfrenta procesos judiciales iniciados en 2011 y 2012 por el ciudadano canadiense Monte Morris Friesner y los señores Patricius Johannes Visser, Kerrn Visser y Maurice Sjerps.

Ornstein se encuentra privado de libertad tras haber sido condenado bajo cargos de calumnia e injuria en contra de los señores antes señalados por 8 y 20 meses respectivamente.

De acuerdo con el Órgano Judicial, el Sr. Ornstein enfrentó procesos judiciales iniciados en el año 2011 que cumplieron con las normas del debido proceso, según las leyes vigentes en la República de Panamá y, en todo momento, tuvo representación legal para su defensa.

Aún cuando el Gobierno panameño no puede intervenir en procesos judiciales, la Cancillería ha dado y continuará dando apoyo informativo cuando las autoridades de los Países Bajos así lo requiera.

Panamá ha estado evolucionando su legislación en esta materia ya que en la actualidad sólo pueden recurrir a tribunales penales por el delito de Calumnia e Injuria las personas particulares que no sean personas públicas.

Aun así, el Gobierno de Panamá ha dado seguimiento cercano a este caso y brinda las atenciones correspondientes al Sr. Ornstein por su actividad profesional como periodista, y en base al firme compromiso del Gobierno de la República de Panamá con el respeto a la libertad de expresión y a los Derechos Humanos.

Panamá continua trabajando arduamente a lo interno del país y con la Comunidad Internacional para seguir elevando los estándares en esta materia.

 

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Ornstein, defamation laws and the Panama Papers: the business context

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Okke Ornstein, Panama’s criminal defamation laws,
the Panama Papers and their business context

by Eric Jackson

Panama is under worldwide economic pressure because a law firm, one of whose partners was President Varela’s minister without portfolio and right-hand man, was shown to have as one of its principal business activities the hiding of the proceeds of many criminal activities, tax evasion most of all but also a lot of bribery and theft of public assets by politically connected individuals (among other rackets). The response that all of this is legal under Panamanian law and the real crime is the disruption of attorney-client privilege inherent in the massive document leak leaves most of the world unmoved.

Now, as human rights activists from around the Americas gather in Panama for the hearings of the Inter-American Human Rights Commission at the same time as journalists and anti-corruption activists from around the world gather for an anti-corruption summit here, Panama has jailed Dutch journalist Okke Ornstein for unflattering stories about a Canadian career criminal, Monte Friesner, who has been represented by the law firm of Panama City mayor José Isabel Blandón, who is also a member of President Varela’s Panameñista Party. Friesner has deployed fake news specialist Kenneth Rijock, and various folks of the alt-right persuasion have piled on, to hail Ornstein’s imprisonment. One thing that they have not done, however, is point out any particular thing that Ornstein wrote about Friesner and demonstrate that it was untrue.

The news in Brazil is pausing for a moment of shock and morning following the world-class tragedy of one its soccer teams’ demise in a plane crash near Medellin. Put on hold for just a moment — but actually we can expect that certain things will continue to move in order to take advantage of a window of opportunity when the Brazilian press and public are not paying attention — is the drumbeat of corruption investigations and political scandals that’s rocking Brazil with no end in sight. The apparent defeat of a proposed impunity law means that the books will not be quickly slammed shut and the testimony silenced. That means that jailed Marcelo Odebrecht is going to testify for the public record about bribes paid by his giant construction company to Panamanian public officials, corporate records sent to Panama to disappear and illegal financial transactions laundered through chains of shell companies set up by Panamanian lawyers. The defeat of the immunity proposal means that even more Brazilian politicians — the folks behind the impeachment of former President Dilma Rousseff and installation of current President Michel Temer — are going to fall and it’s a very good bet that many of their stories will involve bribe money laundered through Panama.

And so it is and has been in Pakistan and Spain and Iceland and Malta and so many other jurisdictions.

The Varela administration’s response? A new law providing that whatever crimes involving corruption by companies doing business with the Panamanian government that are proven in other countries’ courts didn’t happen because the Panamanian courts that avoided looking at these companies did not rule against them. Such a convenient policy, given US, Italian and Brazilian courts’ and prosecutors’ revelations about the bribery of Panamanian public officials.

Not to worry, nothing out of the ordinary here, we are told. You see, Panama is a “privacy jurisdiction.” Perhaps the new administration coming into office in the United States will be friendly to that sort of thing.

To be a “privacy jurisdiction,” Panama not only has banking and corporate secrecy. We also have a Supreme Court decision by a now-imprisoned magistrate that legalizes insider trading of stock shares that are not traded on Panama’s little exchange, and another high court decision that Generally Accepted Accounting Principles are unconstitutional. Although there are some minimal disclosure rules for companies whose shares or bonds are traded on our Bolsa de Valores, those get routinely flouted with little or no consequence. If someone in this country, Panamanian or foreigener, runs an online swindle from these shores or a pyramid scheme within our borders police and prosecutors will not act if the victims are not Panamanian citizens. It’s a wonderful privacy jurisdiction, certified as such by “sovereign investor” Bob Bauman, who was this “family values” Republican congressman from Maryland until he got caught with that 16-year-old boy. Had he been a Panamanian politician, publication of a truthful account of that event would have been a crime under this country’s injuria law, one of the of the two laws that make up Panama’s calumnia e injuria criminal defamation statute. Nominally truth is a defense to calumnia, but it isn’t to injuria — but then in Panama, facts and law can mean almost nothing to many of our judges, especially if the price is right.

Varela appointed a commission to look at the Panama Papers situation and quickly offended its two international stars, American economist Joseph Stiglitz and Swiss criminologist Mark Pieth. They broke away and published a scathing report, calling for worldwide sanctions against “privacy jurisidictions” like Panama. A few days later the remaining members of the commission, with former Panama Canal administrator Alberto Alemán Zubeita speaking for them, announced a set of recommendations for mostly cosmetic changes, mostly to the ways that corporate secrecy laws are to be preserved with a tweak here and there.

Alemán Zubieta, of course, was the guy who oversaw the acceptance of a lowball bid for the design and construction of the new locks by the GUPC consortium, a junior partner of which was his family’s CUSA construction company. But don’t worry. There was no conflict of interest because the Panama Canal Authority under Alemán Zubieta’s leadership declared that there was no conflict of interest.

What if Donald Trump does not come to the rescue of Panama’s oligarchic law firms, banks and other businesses founded on money laundering of one sort or another? What do we do when all we have is a canal, some ports and adjacent warehouses and a railroad to connect them? What do we do when chanting “offshore” no longer passes for business journalism?

Then we will be left with a body of laws and customs, including the criminal defamation statute, which makes it rather like playing “heads I win, tails you lose” for those who would invest in straight-up business ventues here. The criminal element about which investors would want to know so as to steer clear would remain lurking in camouflage.

Okke Ornstein’s accuser

What President Juan Carlos Varela is telling the world by his govenment’s jailing of Dutch journalist Okke Ornstein is that career criminals have governmental protection against public and private scrutiny. Consider the half-century criminal record of accuser Monte Morris Friesner. My apologies to those of you who do not read Spanish for the untranslated Spanish in some of the links, and the Russian in one of them.

The COCECSS / Pronto Cash credit card scheme in Panama

Pronto Cash was registered in the name of his Russian wife, but it was Monte Friesner. This is but a small corner of a much larger Financial Pacific set of financial scandals.

https://www.superbancos.gob.pa/superbancos/documents/laws_regulations/notice/2012/notice5-2012.pdf

http://www.complaintsboard.com/complaints/pronto-cash-monte-friesner-ripped-off-c663223.html

https://www.facebook.com/ProntoCash/?hc_ref=PAGES_TIMELINE

https://web.archive.org/web/20110926062645/http://www.pronto-cash.com/

http://boquete.ning.com/forum/topics/have-money-in-coacecss-think-about-this?id=1434455%3ATopic%3A251114&page=5

http://impresa.prensa.com/panorama/Juicio-caso-Coacecss_0_4274572578.html

See also, tangential but important background:

http://www.burbuja.info/inmobiliaria/burbuja-inmobiliaria/671611-guertel-y-gran-mafia-panamena.html

Laundering the Yeltsin entourage’s loot

The Russian Duma on Friesner — a bad translation that gets him as “Frizer” — as in

“… foreign nationals of Canada Monte Maurice Frizer, Lawrence Hiz, managers of Carlyle Coutts Capital Corpartion SA, etc. All these activities of Zagrebelniy and persons to whom he gave the right to receive credit, are constantly under the cover of the special services of Russia. …”

at https://translationcrimea.wordpress.com/2010/01/20/kuznetsov-corruption-report-%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B4-%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%86%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0-%D0%BE-%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BF%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%B8/

An attempted stock swindle in Canada

Ontario Securities Commission on Friesner and “First Federal Capital (Canada) Corporation” case:

… at the bottom of page 20:

“Friesner has a criminal record. In 1966 he received a suspended sentence and nine months probation for possession of property obtained by crime. He failed to comply with probation. In 1969 he was sentenced to two years less a day for uttering a forged document in attempted fraud. He was convicted of other offences, namely common assault, arson, assault causing bodily harm, theft over $200, on various occasions up to 1986. … [then they get into his US fraud conviction — see the appeals court opinion on that below].

http://www.osc.gov.on.ca/documents/en/Proceedings-RAD/rad_20040203_friesner.pdf

Fraud and money laundering conviction upheld in the USA

The 10th Circuit US Court of Appeals called Friesner “a consummate fraud artist” in its decision at

http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F3/61/917/492744/

 

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World Health Organization encourages HIV self-testing

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WHO issues new guidance on HIV self-testing ahead of World AIDS Day

by the World Health Organization (WHO)

In advance of World AIDS Day, the World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidelines on HIV self-testing to improve access to and uptake of HIV diagnosis.

According to a new WHO progress report lack of an HIV diagnosis is a major obstacle to implementing the Organization’s recommendation that everyone with HIV should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART).

The report reveals that more than 18 million people with HIV are currently taking ART, and a similar number is still unable to access treatment, the majority of which are unaware of their HIV positive status. Today, 40 percent of all people with HIV (more than 14 million individuals) remain unaware of their status. Many of these are people at higher risk of HIV infection who often find it difficult to access existing testing services.

“Millions of people with HIV are still missing out on life-saving treatment, which can also prevent HIV transmission to others,” said Dr. Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “HIV self-testing should open the door for many more people to know their HIV status and find out how to get treatment and access prevention services.”

HIV self-testing means people can use oral fluid or blood- finger-pricks to discover their status in a private and convenient setting. Results are ready within 20 minutes or less. Those with positive results are advised to seek confirmatory tests at health clinics. WHO recommends they receive information and links to counseling as well as rapid referral to prevention, treatment and care services.

HIV self-testing is a way to reach more people with undiagnosed HIV and represents a step forward to empower individuals, diagnose people earlier before they become sick, bring services closer to where people live, and create demand for HIV testing. This is particularly important for those people facing barriers to accessing existing services.

Between 2005 and 2015 the proportion of people with HIV learning of their status increased from 12 to 60 percent globally. This increase in HIV testing uptake worldwide has led to more than 80 pecent of all people diagnosed with HIV receiving ART.

Who misses out on HIV testing?

HIV testing coverage remains low among various population groups. For example, global coverage rates for all HIV testing, prevention, and treatment are lower among men than women.

Men account for only 30 percent of people who have tested for HIV. As a result, men with HIV are less likely to be diagnosed and put on antiretroviral treatment and are more likely to die of HIV-related causes than women.

But some women miss out too. Adolescent girls and young women in East and Southern Africa experience infection rates up to eight times higher than among their male peers. Fewer than one in every five girls (15–19 years of age) are aware of their HIV status.

Testing also remains low among “key populations” and their partners — particularly men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender people, people who inject drugs, and people in prisons — who comprise approximately 44 percent of the 1.9 million new adult HIV infections that occur each year.

Up to 70 percent of partners of people with HIV are also HIV positive. Many of those partners are not currently getting tested. The new WHO guidelines recommend ways to help HIV positive people notify their partners about their status, and also encourage them to get tested.

“By offering HIV self-testing, we can empower people to find out their own HIV status and also to notify their partners and encourage them to get tested as well,” said Dr. Gottfried Hirnschall, Director of WHO’s Department of HIV. “This should lead to more people knowing their status and being able to act upon it. Self-testing will be particularly relevant for those people who may find it difficult to access testing in clinical settings and might prefer self-testing as their method of choice.”

Self-testing has been shown to nearly double the frequency of HIV testing among men who have sex with men, and recent studies in Kenya found that male partners of pregnant women had twice the uptake of HIV testing when offered self-testing compared with standard testing.

Twenty three countries currently have national policies that support HIV self-testing. Many other countries are developing policies, but wide-scale implementation of HIV self-testing remains limited. WHO supports free distribution of HIV self-test kits and other approaches that allow self-test kits to be bought at affordable prices. WHO is also working to reduce costs further to increase access. The new guidance aims to help countries scale up implementation.

WHO is supporting three countries in southern Africa which have started large scale implementation of self-testing through the UNITAID-funded STAR project and many more countries are considering this innovative approach to reaching those who are being left behind.

 

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BWAHAHAHA! A mad doctor Christmas comedy by the Guild!

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Your garden variety mad doctor might be one of those boring and banal guys who wants to conquer the world. The cooler ones want to DESTROY the world. But isn’t it the same thing, if one wants to destroy Christmas? Naaaah — this guy just wants to be rich and famous.

If you’re only in it for the money, don’t cross the elves’ picket line

a review by Eric Jackson

Aren’t we forgeting the true meaning of Christmas? You know, the birth of Santa.
Matt Groening

 

We Jews believe it was Santa Claus that killed Jesus Christ.
Kinky Friedman

 

“Christmas Stopping” is a fun comedy by the Theatre Guild, a play with two casts and a substitute leading man after a medical emergency sidelined the original actor for that role. That there are two casts meant that this reporter didn’t see both of them perform at the one matinee performance — save for joint pre-show warm-ups and the other cast among the Christmas carolers during the intermission. In the larger scheme of things it also means that the Guild is growing so that more artists are learning and practicing their crafts in this, Panama’s oldest theatrical organization.

The cast I saw was Rob Getman, who plays the obsessed shrink and writer in both line-ups, MJ Rojas as the flaky daughter, Carlos Alemán as the loutish son, and Dayana Moreno as the long-suffering hippie wife and stepmother. It was well performed all the way around but to this reporter it seemed that Moreno gave the best performance.

The son of a mad doctor, a mad political scientist, a writer off on a weird tangent — those are life experiences to which this reporter can relate. THIS mad doctor, however, surely lacks a membership card for the Mad Scientists Union whose militant geniuses make Spiderman’s life interesting. He’s such a scab that he offends the elves’ unions. Surely in the more enlightened jurisdictions medical marijuana is an indicated prescription drug for someone married to such a creature.

So can the family survive the doctor’s obsession, his adult kids’ weirdness and the awful pressures of the holiday season? Go see the answer at the Ancon Theater, next door to the DIJ and across from the farmers’ market, at 8 p.m. shows on December 1st, 2nd and 3rd, with a 4 p.m. matinee on Saturday the 3rd.

flake
The family flake — she’s a believer.

 

lout
She’s thinking of getting back together with HIM, the doctor’s son? The fool!

 

Sancho Panza's many times great grnad-niece
And what fresh Hell is THIS?

 

rap
Oh my God — it’s ALIVE!

 

carols
Christmas carols on the front porch during intermission.

 

casts
Co-director Ingrid MacCartney leads both casts through pre-show exercises.

Christmas Stopping

a comedy written by James Rayfiled
directed by Keitha Kushner & Ingrid MacCartney
produced by Gale Cellucci & Ramona Rhoades
Cast 1: Rob Getman, Dayana Moreno, Carlos Alemán & MJ Rojas
Cast 2: Rob Getman, Tevia Brooks, Michael Lindo & Andrea Marchosky
Also pitching in for various production roles: Levys Mon, Relaine Winslow, Rafael Leonardo & Maria Emma Faria

 

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Editorials: VP trash talk; and Russians, Nazis and the US elections

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What happened to El Chorrillo tells us not to go waving machetes at or talking trash to Uncle Sam. Photo by the US Department of Defense.

The VP’s extraordinary anti-American taunt

Uh huh. In an interview with the Spanish news agency EFE, Vice President and Foreign Minister Isabel de Saint Malo de Alvarado told Panamanians and the world that what happens with US policy isn’t that important. “The world’s need to sell keeps growing every day. We don’t see how a policy change in any one country, most important as it may be, can have a significant impact on that.”

What the Americans do can’t be significant? Perhaps she doesn’t remember the economic chaos of pre-invasion US sanctions. Perhaps she has never seen any need or desire to mingle with the survivors of those burned to a crisp in El Chorrillo. Perhaps she has never visited the abandoned industrial parks of the US Rust Belt, or paid any attention to what’s happening in Greece.

The VP goes on to dismiss the Panama Papers and something that just speeded up what Panama was doing anyway, ignoring the OECD disapproval, French blacklist and increasing difficulty of Panamanian banks in finding US corresponding bank services.

A Latin American country might well find other busienss partners to minimize the US leverage over it. Honduras tried that and is now ruled by a US-aligned death squad regime. Venezuela’s woes are mostly about a collapse in oil prices and its government’s ham-handed ways of dealing with that, but US hostility has greatly added to the pressure. If China has indeed moved into many Latin American economic spaces that the Americans used to occupy, it’s still insane to literally or figuratively wave any machetes at the United States.

There are policies like the War on Drugs and the handover of Panama’s rice production to US farmers in which our government ought to part ways with the United States. These sorts of things should be done calmly and with due deliberation, not with bravado and dismissal.

One gets the impression that a Varela administration fresh out of ideas is playing a nationalist card. But would the Panamanian people rally behind the economic fantasy that the government is spinning?

 

Russians and Nazis in the 2016 US elections

Did the Russian government hack the Democratic National Committee’e email server and hand the data over to WikiLeaks? Perhaps. But the top four DNC officials had to resign their posts in the middle of a presidential election year not because Putin insisted that they do so but because of their own gross misconduct, which showed up in the emails but had been complained of well before those leaks.

Is there some law that says that the Nazis’ “Big Lie” technique of endlessly repeating lies until a lot of people believe them to be true is acceptable and anybody who makes the proper association of that with publications and personalities of yesteryear like Der Sturmer and Joseph Goebbels automatically loses the argument for mentioning those who perfected an American advertising technique and applied it to the racist politics of their time and place? The white supremacists say so — but what they say is enemy propaganda to be countered, not obeyed.

The truth is that Hillary Clinton and almost all of the Democratic hierarchy ran an unethical campaign in the primaries, then ran an unbelievably stupid general election campaign. They lost to a reviled candidate and took many good Democrats farther down the ticket to defeat with them. Now is not the time to start the Chelsea Clinton for Congress campaign, for Nancy Pelosi to announce a reorganization plan, nor for the current Democrats Abroad leaders to tell us that they have everything planned through 2020. It wasn’t the Russians. They just need to go. Let the Democratic Party that they tried to reduce to a fundraising list restore itself without them.

 

Bear in mind…

 

It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers.
James Thurber

 

By their essential nature triumphs can’t be given. They must be taken, and the worse the odds and the fiercer the resistance, the greater the honor. Victories can’t be gifts.
Lois McMaster Bujold

 

The first sign of corruption in a society that is still alive is that the end justifies the means.
Georges Bernanos

 

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Getting drenched to oppose sexist violence

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The rain got heavier after this, making photography with this reporter’s camera impractical. However, the march to the Public Ministry proceeded through the tropical cloudburst, the sewers overflowing into the streets all of that.

Marching through the rain against some of our worst nightmares

photos and story by Eric Jackson

An unfortunately small crowd of maybe 200 women, sprinkled with a number of men, marched to protest against the violence that gets visited upon women in Panama. If you consider the death toll, murder is much more often a crime suffered by men. So far this year, there have been 16 homicides of women reported in Panama. When you consider the more general topic of male violence used to control the lives of women, the official statistics understate the problem by far, but so far this year there have been more than 17,000 domestic violence cases filed with Panamanian authorities this year. Even more seriously under-reported are the rape cases.

In the crowd that assembled by the El Carmen Church there were labor unions and feminist groups. Politicians and their parties were notably absent. A couple of young Argentine jugglers were perhaps the most noticeable of the sprinkling of foreigners.

Yes, there were people there because it was the proper show of labor solidarity with oppressed female colleagues, or because it’s an obligatory plank on any really socialist organization’s platform, or because it’s a central demand of the feminist movement. But for so many of us, it was about our worse fears or our most nightmarish memories. It’s not polite for a reporter or anyone else to pry open old wounds of this nature, but this reporter knows a few of the demonstrators’ stories.

A man whose daughter was beaten to death. Women who were raped. Parents, siblings and children of women who were murdered. Men who, at the moment they saw domestic violence visited upon their mothers, also suffered it themselves. These latter cases are of special concern because domestic violence is a pattern of behavior that tends to get passed down from one generation to the next, and when one reviews the history of the violent offenders in Panama’s most hellish prisons, most of them were themselves the victims of domestic violence.

The November 25 date — a horrible time to march through the streets of Panama — was internationally determined, at a 1981 United Nations sponsored conference that declared the day to be the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. It’s the anniversary of that day in 1961 when Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo had three sisters active in his opposition, Patria, Minerva and María Teresa Mirabal, beaten to death and then tried to disguise the deaths as the result of an automobile accident. The crime shocked the Dominican Republic and the world, and most fateful for Trujillo, shocked US President-elect John F. Kennedy, who shortly after taking office set into motion a covert plot that resulted in Trujillo’s assassination. (Looking back, the “regime change” was followed by more instability and misery rather than any particularly noteworthy flowerings of freedom or democracy to the DR.)

Also of concern to many of the protesters is the Varela administration’s proposed regulations implementing and changes to Law 82, which is aimed at preventing violence against women. Minister of Government Milton Henríquez proposed measures against communications media — including the online social media — that publish material said to denigrate women, which met strong resistance from journalists but not from the advertising cartel. The online press was, in Henríquez’s usual insulting way, excluded from the discussion. But meanwhile many feminists and people who work in the legal system say that the regulations would be ineffective both at dealing with domestic violence cases that come before the system and at encouraging victims to take recourse to the law. The government now proposes to eliminate the possibilities of fines for sexism in media. It seems that the marchers are not entirely in agreement about the subject. They dislike degradation in the media and many or most would rather keep the possibility of fines, but some in the crowd also know of how publicity for things like birth control of breast exams has sometimes been labeled as pornographic. There appears to be a greater consensus of dislike for Henríquez.

 

demo 2
The martyred Mirabal sisters.

 

demo 3
The basic point: “Our bodies say stop the violence.”
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