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The neuroscience of fake news

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Fake news works at a cognitive level to shape our perceptions and drive our decisions. Shutterstock

Fake news grabs our attention, produces
false memories and appeals to our emotions

by Rachel Anne Barr, Université Laval

“Fake news” is a relatively new term, yet it’s now seen as one of the greatest threats to democracy and free debate. In the Netflix documentary The Great Hack — which chronicled the rise and fall of Cambridge Analytica — we saw how Facebook data was used to target potential voters with insidious right-wing propaganda packaged as if it were news.

Trailer for the Netflix documentary ‘The Great Hack.’

But how does fake news work? Neuroscience can provide at least some insight.

Grabbing attention

The first job of fake news is to catch our attention, and for this reason, novelty is key. Psychologists Gordon Pennycook and David Rand suggested that one of the reasons hyperpartisan claims are so successful is that they tend to be outlandish.

In a world full of surprises, humans have developed an exquisite ability to rapidly detect and orient towards unexpected information or events. Novelty is an essential concept underlying the neural basis of behavior, and plays a role at nearly all stages of neural processing.

Sensory neuroscience has shown that only unexpected information can filter through to higher stages of processing. The sensory cortex may have therefore evolved to adapt to, to predict, and to quiet down the expected regularities of our experiences, focusing on events that are unpredictable or surprising. Neural responses gradually reduce each time we are exposed to the same information, as the brain learns that this stimulus has no reward associated with it.

Novelty itself is related to motivation. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with reward anticipation, increases when we are confronted by novelty. When we see something new, we recognize its potential for rewarding us in some way. Further studies show that the ability of the hippocampus to create new synaptic connections between neurons (a process known as plasticity) is increased by the influence of novelty. By increasing the plasticity of the brain, the potential for learning new concepts is increased.

Fake news, false memory

The primary region involved in responding to novel stimuli — the substantia nigra/ventral segmental area or SN/VTA — is closely linked to the hippocampus and the amygdala, both of which play important roles in learning and memory. While the hippocampus compares stimuli against existing memories, the amygdala responds to emotional stimuli and strengthens associated long-term memories.

This aspect of learning and memory formation is of particular interest to my own lab, where we study brain oscillations involved in long-term memory consolidation. This process occurs during sleep, a somewhat limited time frame to integrate all of our daily information. For this reason, the brain is adapted to prioritise certain types of information. Highly emotionally provocative information stands a stronger chance of lingering in our minds and being incorporated into long-term memory banks.

Our brains consolidate long-term memories during sleep. Shutterstock

The allure of fake news is therefore reinforced by its relationship to memory formation. A recent study, published in Psychological Science, highlighted that exposure to propaganda may induce false memories. In one of the largest false-memory experiments to date, scientists gathered up registered voters in the Republic of Ireland in the week preceding the 2018 abortion referendum.

Half of the participants reported a false memory for at least one fabricated event, with more than one third of participants reporting a specific, “eye-witness” memory. In-depth analysis revealed that voters were most susceptible to forming false memories for fake news that closely aligned with their beliefs, particularly if they had low cognitive ability.

Emotional appeals

The ability of fake news to grab our attention and then highjack our learning and memory circuitry goes a long way to explaining its success. But its strongest selling point is its ability to appeal to our emotions. Studies of online networks show text spreads more virally when it contains a high degree of “moral emotion,” which drives everything we do.

Decisions are often driven by deep-seated emotion that can be difficult to identify. In the process of making a judgment, people consult or refer to an emotion catalogue carrying all the positive and negative tags consciously or unconsciously associated with a given context.

We rely on our ability to place information into an emotional frame of reference that combines facts with feelings. Our positive or negative feelings about people, things and ideas arise much more rapidly than our conscious thoughts, long before we’re aware of them. This processing operates with exposures to emotional content as short as 1/250th of a second, “an interval so brief that there is no recognition or recall of the stimulus.

Merely being exposed to a fake news headline can increase later belief in that headline, so scrolling through social media feeds laden with emotionally provocative content has the power to change the way we see the world and make political decisions.

The novelty and emotional conviction of fake news, and the way these properties interact with the framework of our memories, exceeds our brains’ analytical capabilities. Though it’s impossible to imagine a democratic structure without disagreement, no constitutional settlement can function if everything is a value judgement based on misinformation.

In the absence of any authoritative perspective on reality, we are doomed to navigate our identities and political beliefs at the mercy of our brains’ more basal functions. The capacity to nurture and sustain peaceful disagreement is a positive characteristic of a truly democratic political system.

But before democratic politics can begin, we must be able to distinguish between opinions and facts, fake news and objective truth.

[ Deep knowledge, daily. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter. ]The Conversation

Rachel Anne Barr, PhD Student, Université Laval

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

 

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Ledezma, Bolivia

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kkk

Bolivia: “El país que quiere vivir”

por Franklin Ledezma Candanedo

El gran compañero, amigo y colega progresista Malcolm Rumbos, nos envió el documento titulado “El País Que Quiere Vivir”, de la pluma solidaria e insobornable del periodista y escritor uruguayo Eduardo Galeano, “sobre la historia del pueblo de Bolivia, de sus sacrificios, de su resistencia heroica frente al saqueo de sus inmensas riquezas”…, martirio que sigue en esta segunda década trágica del siglo XXI, que otros intelectuales solidarios de la Patria Grande deben reseñar, para denunciar a impostores neo fascistas disfrazados de cristianos, entre otros, Luis Fernando Camacho, auto nombrado líder cívico de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, quien utiliza métodos que nos hacen recordar al troglodita brasileño y demás miembros idénticos de un fantasma llamado cartel de Lima.

Cabe destacar que Camacho es parte de Los Caballeros del Oriente, una de las dos grandes logias influyentes de Santa Cruz y es presidente del Comité Pro Santa Cruz, un grupo de instituciones empresariales, vecinales y laborales de extrema derecha. Sus constantes invocaciones a la religión contrastan con una retórica siempre violenta, además que se le tilda de misógino y racista. En concreto, es “una expresión de la derecha protofascista” boliviana.

Junto a su familia integra el Grupo Empresarial de Inversiones Nacional Vida S.A., compañías vinculadas a los seguros, el gas y los servicios. Al respecto, Hugo Siles, politólogo y exministro de Autonomía en Santa Cruz señaló al medio alternativo RT:

“Camacho forma parte de una familia acaudalada de la zona”. Y precisó: “Antes, cada usuario le costaba de 1000 a 1500 dólares conectarse a la red de gas. Esa era una de las empresas de su familia. Hoy todo eso es gratuito por la política de nacionalización donde el gas es un recurso que los bolivianos hemos recuperado para nuestra economía”. Así relata algunos de los intereses concretos de su clan que fueron tocados por el Gobierno de Morales.

En consecuencia, no hay tal patraña cívico-religiosa, sino que respira por la “herida” a sus intereses económicos. Camacho preside desde febrero del presente año, el “Comité pro Santa Cruz, una organización que aglutina diferentes entidades vecinales, zonales, empresariales, de trabajadores de una de las zonas más ricas de Bolivia. La región produce el 70 % de los alimentos del país y tiene un enorme potencial energético e hidrocarburífero que, tras la nacionalización de Morales en 2016, está hoy en manos del Estado.

Más clara no puede ser la razón esta vorágine interminable de racismo y violencia contra hermana(o)s originaria(o)s, en una tierra que, tal como reseñó Galeano, Bolivia “EL PAÍS QUE QUIERE VIVIR”, es una fatal historia que no termina y que debe –debemos- seguir escribiendo, como denuncia frontal de los demonios con el ropaje de cristianos, todos al servicio de la bestia (666) mayor, el imperio genocida, neo liberal depredador de los recursos estratégicos de países hermanos. En tanto, les enviamos este documento fundamental. Fraternal saludo y adelante, siempre adelante.

 

El autor es fundador y directivo de la Asociación Americana de Periodistas Bolivarianos, Capítulo de Panamá, de la Red Bolivariana “Victoriano Lorenzo”, Héroe de la Revolución Libertaria, en Defensa de la Humanidad, del Comité Panameño de Solidaridad con Bolivia y de la Comisión Anti Bélica de Panamá.

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Spencer, Farewell letter

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Richard V. Spencer, who was Secretary of the Navy until an argument with Donald Trump over pardons for war crimes and the obstruction of Navy disciplinary measures based on those incidents. US Senate photo.

Principles, good order and discipline

THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY
WASHINGTON DC 203504000

24 Nov 19

Dear Mr. President:

It has been the extreme honor of a lifetime to stand alongside the men and women of the Navy and Marine Corps team in the protection of the American people and the values we all hold dear.

Together we have made great strides over the past two years, strengthening the foundation of our readiness, and bolstering our constellation of allies and partners, to respond wherever needed with the honor and professionalism that have marked our force for the past 244 years.

Now more than ever, the United States Navy and Marine Corps stands ready and firm in every part of the globe, fueled at all times by our greatest resource the men and women who wear the uniform. Many of them will soon miss their Thanksgiving dinners at home so that they can continue the watch beyond the curve of the horizon. They and their families are, and will forever be, my personal heroes.

As Secretary of the Navy, one the most important responsibilities I have to our people is to maintain good order and discipline throughout the ranks. I regard this as deadly serious business. The lives of our Sailors, Marines and civilian teammates quite literally depend on the professional execution of our many missions, and they also depend on the ongoing faith and support of the people we serve and the allies we serve alongside.

The rule of law is what sets us apart from our adversaries. Good order and discipline is what has enabled our victory against foreign tyranny time and again, from Captain Lawrence’s famous order “Don’t Give up the Ship,” to the discipline and determination that propelled our flag to the highest point on lwo Jima. The Constitution, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice, are the shields that set us apart. and the beacons that protect us all. Through my Title Ten Authority, I have strived to ensure our proceedings are fair, transparent and consistent, from the newest recruit to the Flag and General Officer level.

Unfortunately it has become apparent that in this respect, I no longer share the same understanding with the Commander in Chief who appointed me, in regards to the key principle of good order and discipline. I cannot in good conscience obey an order that I believe violates the sacred oath I took in the presence of my family, my flag and my faith to support and defend the Constitution of the United States.

The President deserves and should expect a Secretary of the Navy who is aligned with his vision for the future of our force generation and sustainment. Therefore, with pride in the achievements we’ve shared, and everlasting faith in the continued service and fidelity of the finest Sailors, Marines and civilian teammates on Earth. I hereby acknowledge my termination as United States Secretary of the Navy, to be effective immediately.

I will forever be grateful for every opportunity to have served. from my days as a Marine. to the extreme honor of serving as the 76th Secretary of the Navy. My wife Polly and I stand in appreciation and admiration of the patriots who today forge the next link in the unbroken chain of our Navy and Marine Corps, and we urge all Americans to keep them, and their families, in their hearts and prayers through this holiday season and beyond.

Thank you once again for the opportunity to serve.

Respectfully yours,

Richard V. Spencer

 

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¿Wappin? Así es… / Quite so

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Jaivas
Los Jaivas en su 55 aniversario. Foto de Mario Ruiz.

It’s like this / Es como esto

Sia – I’m In Here
https://youtu.be/2LGU4P-UNSY

Carla Morrison – Todo Pasa
https://youtu.be/J831IntjDDI

Bob Marley – Redemption Song
https://youtu.be/15_fvQr1pWQ

10,000 Maniacs – I’m Not the Man
https://youtu.be/Z3qHkJnYK4E

Enrique Bunbury – Lo que más te gustó de mí
https://youtu.be/J5AyieIg4Os

Pretenders – Creep
https://youtu.be/lML2N4xB9GU

Mon Laferte & Juanes – Amárrame
https://youtu.be/-O51n0cdxPg

Johnny Cash – Hurt
https://iyoutu.be/HjQtlAiFLuc

Jefferson Airplane – When the Earth Moves Again
https://youtu.be/KnnXKsZbTUo

Zahara & Santi Balmes – Guerra y Paz
https://youtu.be/AEgB3joHtMw

Holly Near & Ronnie Gilbert – Harriet Tubman
https://youtu.be/-6MpN2GfBCQ

Prince – Free
https://youtu.be/uHJFG4tmoeE

Séptima Raíz – De frente con Jah
https://youtu.be/qfEZeC77mcI

Lila Downs – Clandestino
https://youtu.be/GBxkpkj9If8

Los Jaivas – La Poderosa Muerte
https://youtu.be/8AO8pY09h_Y

 

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Editorial, The economy and egos

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The riot squad moves in against protesters in Medellin.

The economy and egos inflame the region

Are you going to look at it on a left to right spectrum? Are you going to look for a bad guy – or a good guy – pulling the strings?

Well, there are a lot of ideological shades to be found in our tumultuous region, and there are a lot of manipulators and others grabbing for what strings they might control. However, putting color on a tide, finding an arch-fiend behind everything and other exercises of the conspiratorial mind will not well explain the troubles around our region, which have beset governments of the left, right, center and false pretenses.

On one level, it’s just the economy. World prices of most raw materials that Latin America sells are down. Trade wars are putting people out of work on all sides of all oceans. If Panama doesn’t produce much, that’s a structural problem for our economy but our main role as a transportation, commercial and financial hub for places that do produce things is impoverished by our neighbors’ woes.

The promoters of yesterday’s orthodoxy that’s enshrined in so many of today’s laws and policies bragged about how their ideology was global, and now we see its failure on a planetary scale. Governments elected on left and right and hybrid tickets mostly bought into it and are paying the price regardless of their professed faiths.

Making it all worse is a common ego disorder that knows no political hue, the self-identification of people who come to office with “The People” and the belief or desire to make others believe that they are indispensable. All manner of corruption grows in the soil of those sorts of ego disorders. Exclusionary fanaticism, whether in partisan, religious or ethnic forms, are common variations on the theme.

Societies need to gavel their worst offenders to order and get down to some basic agreements about how they will govern themselves. Those agreements should as constitutional matters exclude the special ambitions and dibs of persons and families and leave nobody without a share and a voice. Those things have not been done. Not in Panama, not in very many places in Latin America, not in today’s USA. Which is why all the anger against those in power, fear among those in power, and temptations for opportunists who want to grab power.

Can we all step back and think about “We, The People” for a moment, without all the preconceived stereotypes? That would be a good first step toward peace in the region. But of course, some will refuse and may need to be dragged away, kicking and screaming. But first, let as many of us as possible reason together, outside of the strictures that have been imposed.

I’m an artist who is a Christian. I’m not a Christian artist.

Johnny Cash

Bear in mind…

 

Don’t accept rides from strange men, and remember that all men are strange.

Robin Morgan

Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake.

Napoleon Bonaparte

A little bad taste is like a nice dash of paprika.

Dorothy Parker

 

 

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Servicio de Migración National (SMN): Amenaza / Threat

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SMN

Communiqué

The National Migration Service (SMN), informs that the peaceful demonstration is a part of Panamanian democracy and all citizens have the right to freely dissent, so long as it does not affect the community. The Political Constitution of the Republic of Panama establishes in Article 15 that “such citizens as well as foreigners who are found in the Republic of Panama shall be subject to its Constitution and laws.”

As a consequence, the foreigners who are residents in the national territory have  some limitations, thus we ask them to abstain from participating in protest and demonstrations in order to avoid legal problems that could affect their residency in the country.

The SMN, empowered by Article 6, Section 4 of the Migration Law, can “authorize, deny or prohibit the entry or presence of foreigners in the national territory, and order their deportation, expulsion or return in conformance with the Political Constitution of the Republic and the laws.

Moreover, Article 65 of this law emphasizes that the SMN will deport and order an impediment to entry into the national territory of foreigners for threats against public security, as set forth in chapter 4 of the Migration Law.

 

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Al peso de Tanque de Gas, Las Mil Polleras desfilarán en Las Tablas

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polleras
El Desfile de Las Mil Polleras en Las Tablas. Foto por la ATP.
ATP

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Richardson, Explaining Trump’s racism

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he's a wizard under the sheets
Racism means a lot more than using slurs or feeling hatred. Yet even in these narrow terms, Trump fits the bill.

Explaining Trump’s racism

by Jill Richardson

“Is Trump a racist?” I have two answers to that question.

First, most white Americans misunderstand racism solely as intentional beliefs held by individual racists who hate people on the basis of race. For example, at times the media has focused on whether or not they could prove Trump had ever used the N-word, as if that alone would be the measure of whether or not he is a racist.

Sociologist Eduardo Bonilla-Silva says that this “misses the fact” that racism is “a part of the social structure of society. Hence, we all participate in it — and we participate in it whether we like it or not, in conscious and unconscious ways, and in passive as well as active ways.”

This latter definition, the one accepted by sociologists and race scholars, takes a bit of getting used to, particularly if you are a white person who abhors racism.

I try to frame it for my students as follows: This nation was founded by people of European descent who stole land from — and committed a genocidal campaign against — the indigenous people on this continent. Then they enslaved Africans and their descendants for more than 200 years.

Segregation only became fully illegal in 1968. Anyone over the age of 51 was alive while segregation was still legal. We as a nation are still grappling with the legacy of our past, working toward justice for all — and we aren’t there yet.

None of us alive today asked to be born into a racist society — and yet, here we all are. It’s impossible to grow up in that society without participating in the status quo and absorbing at least some prejudices, even if they are only subconscious ones.

In short, learning about race means getting comfortable with the idea that our society itself is effectively racist, even for white folks who don’t actively feel that hatred themselves.

My second answer about whether or not Trump is a racist is: yes. And not just in the “everyone’s a racist” sense of the word.

For example, during the run up to the 2016 election, white nationalists supported Donald Trump because they felt like he would represent their interests and values best. Former Klan leader David Duke openly supported Trump, and still does.

Now, a trove of leaked emails show that Trump’s senior adviser Stephen Miller is “clearly immersed in white nationalist ideology.”

If Trump appeals to white nationalists and appoints white nationalists to senior positions in his administration, does that mean he holds racist views himself? Probably — but does it even matter? Whatever he privately believes, he’s allowed white nationalists to infiltrate senior levels of government, and they are influencing national policy.

In a more recent talk at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Bonilla-Silva analyzed Trump’s use of language to show how he speaks in terms of “us” and “them,” in which “us” refers to white Americans and “them” refers to people of color. And he routinely refers to immigrant “infestations,” using language most people reserve for insects and rodents they intend to exterminate. (Yet he’s not against all immigrants: he likes to marry the white ones.)

Although Trump often defends his immigration policies in terms of national security or economic concerns, the facts show that immigrants commit crimes at lower rates than native born citizens and, as one study put it, “immigration has an overall positive impact on the long-run economic growth in the US.”

In short, Trump’s language, his choice of senior officials in his administration, and his popularity among white nationalists show that he holds racist views. It’s those views — and not national security or economic factors — that are behind his policies.

 

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Kermit’s birds / Las aves de Kermit

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da boid
White-necked Puffbird / Buco Cuelliblanco / Notharchus hyperrhynchus
Encontrado en Parque Nacional Metropolitano en Panamá

White-necked Puffbird ~ Buco Cuelliblanco

This bird will be found in forest canopies and at forest edges, often remaining quiet and motionless on an upper branch for a long time, then swooping down to catch a large and tasty – to it – insect and return to its perch for a feast. Ranging from Southern Mexico to northern Argentina, you find it on both sides of Panama but generally not in the Azuero’s dry forests. It’s most common in the canal area, particularly on the Pacific side of it.

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Esta ave se encontrará en los doseles de los bosques y en los bordes del bosque, a menudo permanece tranquila e inmóvil en una rama superior durante mucho tiempo, luego se abalanza para atrapar un insecto grande y sabroso, y volver a su percha para un festín. Desde el sur de México hasta el norte de Argentina, lo encuentras a ambos lados de Panamá, pero generalmente no en los bosques secos de Azuero. Es más común en el área del canal, particularmente en el lado del Pacífico.

 


 

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Lerner, Trump’s declaration that Israeli settlements on the West Bank are legal

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tikkun

West Bank settlements are no longer illegal?

by Michael Lerner

On Monday, November 18, the Trump Administration announced that the United States would no longer consider Israeli settlement activity in the West Bank illegal, despite decades of US statements insisting that it was in fact illegal.

Strongly denouncing the US policy shift, Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, one of the leading candidates in the Democratic Party’s presidential primary, said: “Another blatantly ideological attempt by the Trump administration to distract from its failures in the region. Not only do these settlements violate international law—they make peace harder to achieve. As president, I will reverse this policy and pursue a two state solution.”

Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, another prominent Democratic candidate, said that “Israeli settlements in occupied territory are illegal. This is clear from international law and multiple United Nations resolutions. Once again, Mr. Trump is isolating the United States and undermining diplomacy by pandering to his extremist base.”

Warren and Sanders are considered the most critical of Israel among Democratic presidential contenders.

Also rebuking the move, Pete Buttigieg, the mayor of South Bend and a leading Democratic presidential hopeful, said that “the Trump administration’s statement on West Bank settlements is not only a significant step backward in our efforts to achieve a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, it is the latest in a pattern of destructive decisions that harm our national interests.”

Senator Mark Warner (D-VA), the senior Democrat on the Senate’s Intelligence Committee, warned that “the Trump administration’s decision to reverse longstanding US policy and unilaterally legitimize Israeli settlements in the West Bank serves no strategic purpose except to further undermine the chances for a lasting and peaceful two-state solution.”

Representative Alan Lowenthal (D-CA) called the decision “outrageous” and urged fellow members of Congress to pass a resolution in favor of the two-state solution for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Lowenthal also warned of possible future steps taken by the Israeli government to annex parts of the West Bank in light of the American new settlement policy.

This is one of many moves by the Trump Administration to strengthen right-wing Jewish support for his presidency, hoping to overcome the growing recognition by many Jews that Trump’s legitimation of right-wing white-nationalist extremists has created a political atmosphere in which anti-Semitism is growing in the United States and around the world. There are some Jews who will bite at this bait, believing that giving in to Israel’s expansionist policies will somehow provide more security. The truth is the opposite – that the settlers have intensified hatreds between West Bank settlers and those Palestinians who have held up hope that someday they could have a politically and economically viable state of their own, rather than a series of isolated Palestinian cities in a countryside that was increasingly dominated by Jewish religious extremists.

From our standpoint at Tikkun, this recent development and the likelihood that they will be followed by acts to annex to Israel West Bank settlements only strengthens our view that this is a time for Jews and our allies to rally around Tikkun’s call for “one person one vote” for anyone living under Israeli rule, including the West Bank and Gaza. The call for one person one vote resonates with people all around the world as well as in Israel and the US It should be evident to many today that describing the settlement of the West Bank as illegal under international law did not have much teeth in terms of pushing Israel in a different direction. When I was in Israel most recently, even the most progressive activists laughed with bitterness at “international law” which has been broken so often by so many countries (including the United States, China, Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, and the list goes on and on). On the other hand, many Israelis and Jews in the United States do have an attachment to the democratic ideal expressed in “one person one vote.” It’s time for progressives to reframe what we want.

How could this be an effective long-term strategy, rather than those that seek economic and political ways to coerce Israel into ethical behavior? If support for this strategy grows, as I think it will if the peace forces in Israel, Palestine, Western Europe and the United States enthusiastically use it as the center of their discourse, right wingers in Israel may start to feel that this kind of a movement demand might eventually be imposed on Israel. Rather than wait for that to happen, many of them would begin to feel that the creation of a Palestinian state is far less dangerous to the Jewish people than what would become a binational state imposed on them. At that point, perhaps a decade or two away, Israel might embrace the two state solution as their way of maintaining a Jewish state. There is, of course, nothing inevitable about this possible scenario, but it seems more plausible than a strategy based on somehow hoping that international law will be enforced on Israel or that economic boycotts will cause deep economic costs on Israel and that Israel will be willing to adopt a one-state solution.

In any event, we at Tikkun stand with all those who condemn the Trump Administration’s latest outrage, just as we stood with those who were outraged at 8 years of the Obama Administration’s empty proclamations of criticism of Israel policy while simultaneously vetoing every single UN resolution calling for changes in Israeli policy toward Palestinians (except the very last one which Obama supported AFTER the 2016 election when it was obvious that nothing he did or said then in the last two months of his presidency would have any lasting impact on the region). Obama last weekend warned Democrats to not be too responsive to the young people who have been insisting on substantial changes in America’s economy and health care program. Yet after eight years of his moderation, a substantial part of the American people were willing to elect Trump (aided by an electoral college system that Obama had taken no serious moves to build a constituency to replace with a constitutional amendment abolishing the Electoral College). The last thing this country needs now is another Obama-style Democrat who will be a servant of the ruling elites of this country while making largely token gestures to address the needs of the rest of us.


How to get a more effective progressive movement is a central part of Rabbi Lerner’s new book Revolutionary Love, which you can order at http://www.tikkun.org/lj.

 

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