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Marioposas: ¿Es predecible la evolución?

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Acercamiento de ala de mariposa Heliconius.
Imagen por Sonia Tejada/STRI

¿Es predecible la evolución?

por STRI

Mariposas de distintas especies pueden tener los mismos patrones de coloración de alas. Estos patrones sirven para advertir a los depredadores que son toxicas y para reconocer a una pareja de su misma especie. Pero si los patrones de las alas en cada especie evolucionaron de la misma manera, la eliminación de un gen importante debería tener el mismo efecto en ambas. Carolina Concha, junto a un equipo internacional descubrieron que la inactivación del gen WntA produce diferentes efectos en mariposas miméticas, por lo que las dos especies desarrollaron el mismo patrón a través de distintas vías.

Un equipo internacional de científicos que trabajaban con mariposas Heliconius en el Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales (STRI) en Panamá se enfrentó a un misterio: ¿cómo las parejas de mariposas no relacionadas desde Perú hasta Costa Rica desarrollan casi los mismos patrones de color de ala una y otra vez? La respuesta, publicada en Current Biology, cambia para siempre la forma en que comprendemos la evolución.

“Nuestro equipo es el primero en informar que, aunque la evolución de patrones de color similares en Heliconius puede ser impulsada por fuerzas similares, como el caso de los depredadores que evitan un tipo particular de mariposa, el camino hacia ese resultado no es predecible”, comentó Carolina Concha, autora principal de la publicación y becaria postdoctoral en STRI. “Esto realmente nos sorprendió porque revela la importancia de la historia y el azar en la configuración de las rutas genéticas que conducen a la imitación del patrón de alas de mariposa”.

Los brillantes colores del ala de Heliconius indican a los depredadores que las mariposas son tóxicas. Los llamativos patrones de las alas de los machos indican a las hembras que están eligiendo la especie correcta para aparearse. De alguna manera, estas dos fuerzas, la depredación y el apareamiento, conducen a patrones de alas similares en grupos de mariposas aisladas en los valles montañosos y las laderas de los Andes. Al eliminar un solo gen llamado WntA en 12 especies distintas y sus variantes, los biólogos moleculares del equipo pudieron determinar si un par de mariposas con los mismos patrones de alas estaban usando las mismas rutas genéticas para colorear y modelar sus alas. No lo hacían.

“Imagina que a dos equipos que reciben los mismos bloques de Lego se les pide que construyan el mismo dispositivo”, comentó Arnaud Martin, coautor y jefe del Laboratorio Butterfly Evo-Devo de la Universidad George Washington. “Cada equipo realiza la tarea de manera diferente, pero al final, el resultado es el mismo. Las mariposas enfrentan desafíos mucho más serios: construyen estructuras tapizadas de escamas (las alas) que son esenciales para su supervivencia y capacidad de reproducción”.

Las preguntas sobre el mimetismo de las mariposas han intrigado a los biólogos durante décadas, pero la tecnología para eliminar selectivamente un solo gen en un organismo vivo no existió hasta hace unos cinco años. Ahora, con la edición genómica usando CRISPR/Cas9, cada vez es más fácil jugar con el código genético. Cuando los investigadores eliminan un gen de diseño principal, como WntA, cambia la estructura microscópica y el color de las escamas que componen el ala de la mariposa y, como resultado, el patrón cambia.

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Las mariposas toman distintos caminos para llegar al mismo patrón de color. Estas dos especies de mariposas no relacionadas se parecen mucho. Pero cuando el gen WntA es eliminado, el resultado es diferente para cada una, lo que indica que no están tomando el mismo camino evolutivo para llegar al mismo patrón. Heliconius hewitsoni (arriba) y Heliconius pachinus (abajo) mostrando alas de individuos con (izq.) y sin (der.) el gen WntA. Fotos de Sebastian Mena, figura de Carolina Concha.

El estudio plantea una serie de interrogantes, como la forma en que WntA interactúa con otros genes para quedar con un área que es roja o negra. Ahora el equipo quiere saber cómo se controla el gen WntA.

“Aprendimos que si bien un gen de desarrollo (WntA) puede tener un papel amplio en la evolución de la mayoría de los patrones de color del ala de la mariposa, su uso preciso para colorear esa ala no es completamente predecible”, comentó Riccardo Papa, coautor y profesor de Universidad de Puerto Rico. “Distintas especies con patrones idénticos de color de ala, como las mariposas miméticas, pueden evolucionar usando diferentes estrategias moleculares. ¡Imagina las mismas notas tocadas en diferentes instrumentos!

“Algunas personas dicen que Panamá era una palabra indígena que significa abundancia de mariposas”, comentó Owen McMillan, científico y jefe del laboratorio de genómica ecológica de STRI. “Los laboratorios Smithsonian en Gamboa son sin duda uno de los mejores lugares del mundo para comprender cómo evolucionan las mariposas, y esperamos que investigadores inspirados se unan a nosotros mientras continuamos haciendo interrogantes sobre estas criaturas increíblemente hermosas”.

Veinticinco autores del Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales, la Universidad de Oxford, la Universidad George Washington, la Universidad Estatal de Mississippi, la Universidad de Cambridge, la Universidad de Puerto Rico, la Universidad Estadual de Campinas, la Universidad del Rosario, la Universidad de Chicago y la Universidad Estatal de Carolina del Norte. contribuido a este estudio.

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Estas dos especies de mariposas no relacionadas se parecen mucho. Pero cuando el gen WntA es eliminado, el resultado es diferente para cada una, lo que indica que no están tomando el mismo camino evolutivo para llegar al mismo patrón. Heliconius sapho, (arriba) Heliconius cydno.chioneus (abajo) mostrando alas de individuos con (izq.) y sin (der.) el gen WntA. Fotos de Sebastian Mena, figura de Carolina Concha.
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Dra. Carolina Concha, autora principal del estudio.

Referencia: Concha, C., Wallbank, R.W.R., Hanly, J. et al. 2019. Interplay between developmental flexibility and determinism in the evolution of mimetic Heliconius wing patterns. Current Biology. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31316-8

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Golpe de Estado racista en Bolivia

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La “presidenta” proclamada por la Casa Blanca.

Fue así: el poder blanco respaldado por Trump en la Bolivia indígena





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Now there’s a Democrats Abroad branch in the Coronado area

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Coronado
What’s happening among US voters in Coronado is likely akin to the shift of US suburbs to the Democrats, especially among women voters. Because voting from abroad entails absentee ballots sent to where a person last lived in the States, we don’t get accurate numbers. It does appear likely, however, that the Democrats carried Coronado in 2018, as would not have happened before. Archive photo by Eric Jackson.

Democrats Abroad Panama organizes Coronado area branch

by Democrats Abroad

A new branch of Democrats Abroad has been started in the Playa Coronado area with the goal of helping US Citizens in Panama understand how to vote, helping them get registered, and ensure they are not purged from voting rolls. Democrats Abroad is the Democratic Party arm for the millions of Americans living outside the borders of the country. But the group is non-partisan with respect to voter registration.

US Citizens have the right to vote in federal elections no matter where they are currently living. The US State Department estimates more than nine million Americans are residing outside the country in 2019 — a larger population than almost 40 states. In 2018, about 221,000 US citizens abroad actually cast a ballot.

The State Department estimates about 25,000 Americans are living in Panama currently, and Democrats Abroad has local groups in Boquete, el Valle, and Panama City as well as the Playa Coronado area. DA-Panama has plans for several “Get Out the Vote” events in the coming months starting in January and will participate in the Democratic Global Presidential Primary that takes place from March 3 through 10, 2020. Look for announcements here about dates and locations.

“We’ve had about 25 Democrats at each of our first two local gatherings,” said Kim Antonsen, DA-Panama Chair. “The diverse opinions, enthusiasm and knowledge among them make for a fun and energetic event every time.”

If you’d like to join, contact PlayaCoronadoDems@gmail.com for more information about local events, or join DemocratsAbroad online. Kim added, “Your voice – and your vote – matter!”

To register to vote from abroad – generally in the last place in the USA where you lived – go to Vote From Abroad here. People who are dual US and Panamanian citizens can vote in US elections as well, and for those who are more comfortable in Spanish, the Vote From Abroad website now has a Spanish section.

 

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Morocco threatens Panama over anti-colonial stand

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Joe and Mo
Joe and Mo — the United States may, under whatever administration, have a foreign policy that tolerates many sorts of abuses from any given momentary ally. Which may prove useful to said ally if it decides to go after some third country over a policy about which the United States does not much care. Or may prove useful for the United States if Washington wants to put the squeeze on that third country over a relationship with a fourth country, perhaps to threaten Panama about its relations with China. It’s unlikely that the 2020 US election will be fought over any foreign policy issue, as it’s an electorate that for the most part speaks only one language and a large part of which could not locate Panama or Morocco on a map. But after the wreckage of the Trump era, there are some Democrats looking to go back to what was while others will want to walk past that rubble into a different US role in the world. That’s likely to be a powerful undercurrent in the primaries. Whatever happens in US politics, Panama would be at most an afterthought, but would need to adjust to changes coming out of the north. Obama White House photo with then-VP Joe Biden on the left and King Mohamed VI of Morocco on the right.

Panama threatened over its stand
on one of Africa’s last colonies

by Eric Jackson

“If you support secession, we will support secession in your house. And if you support negative groups, we will support negative groups in your territory.” Thus spake Nasser Bourita, foreign minister of the Kingdom of Morocco, about King Mohamed VI’s policy toward Panama.

What’s the problem? The Spanish dictator Francisco Franco may be long dead and just reburied as the Spanish government ordered his bones’ removal from public property at the Valley of the Fallen cemetery and shrine. A deathbed folly of his lives on in the Western Sahara, a mineral rich but sparsely populated Spanish colony that he purported to devolve to Morocco and Mauritania, the northern two-thirds to the former, the rest to the latter. This, in response to and in lieu of an independence referendum that the United Nations had demanded. Since 1965 the UN has repeatedly called for such a vote, and authorities in Spain, then in Morocco, have always found ways to avoid such an election.

At the time, Panama was in the process of ending a colonial situation here, with the non-aligned countries that had mostly been colonies supporting the efforts of General Omar Torrijos’s government to devolve what was the US enclave of the Canal Zone to Panama. As it had in 1821, when it threw it threw in its lot with Simón Bolívar against the Spanish Crown, Panama took the anti-colonial side. In 1978 the Torrijos dictatorship recognize the government set up by the Saharawis’ anti-colonial movement, the POLISARIO Front, the Democratic Saharawi Arab Republic (RASD).

Recognition of the Western Sahara as an independent country has been the default position of Panamanian diplomacy since then, with the exception of a year and a half lapse at the end of the Martinelli years and the beginning of the Varela presidency. Nito Cortizo’s PRD administration has reaffirmed Panamanian support for the independence of the Western Sahara, which makes us one of 83 countries taking that stand but one of only a few in Latin America. The king of Morocco is quite upset about this.

The stakes are minerals and fisheries, mainly a large phosphate deposit that supplies chemical agriculture, munitions and other industries. Spain, the United States, Israel and France are all in one way or another beneficiaries of the resources grab. The people who live in the Western Sahara, and especially those who once did but have been expelled, generally derive negative economic yields from the arrangement.

The Saharawi independence war is in a long-running ceasefire, which came about when Morocco built a long wall defended by some 180,000 soldiers, minefields and many sorts of electronic observation devices. The phosphate mine and a conveyor belt that goes to the Atlantic Ocean are guarded by Morocco. On that side of the wall the gold, lead, uranium and other valuable resources are also to be found. Beyond the wall, Saharawis control. There are a few places on either side of the long wall where the Moroccans or the Saharawis have gained footholds. Much of the Saharawi population has been driven into exile, particularly in a huge refugee camp near Tindouf in the west of Algeria but also with substantial communities in Spain and France. One of the few things that keeps the Saharawi cause in the world’s eye is the activity of pro-independence Saharawi women’s groups in Spain and France.

A the time of Morocco’s takeover of the Western Sahara, there were an estimated 800,000 to one million Saharawis. Morocco has driven away many of these, and moved more than 300,000 Moroccans into the area. One of the dodges by which the Moroccan royal family has for decades avoided a referendum is its insistence that Saharawis in exile can’t vote and Moroccans transplanted to the Western Sahara can.

Soon after Spain’s devolution of the Western Sahara to Morocco and Mauritania, POLISARIO forces knocked the Mauritanians out of the war. But Morocco then moved in to take over the claims that Mauritania renounced in favor of the Saharawis.

The basic lay of the land in an African colonial war.

So what next?

Morocco has threatened to shut down the Panamanian embassy in Rabat, which might actually dovetail nicely into Nito Cortizo’s government austerity plans. On the other hand, it might deprive Cortizo of an option to send off one of his party’s more annoying politicians on a diplomatic mission. (Perhaps to make up the loss, and notwithstanding their allegedly inferior potassium, Panama could open an embassy in Uzbekistan for that purpose.)

Support for subversion here? In the grand scheme of things Morocco has relatively few resources of its own and no appreciable ideological following for this purpose. But the king is a rich man — Forbes magazine estimates the king’s fortune at around $5.7 billion, making him Africa’s fifth wealthiest man. Also, Mohamed VI’s kingdom could become a conduit for funding by ultra-right Christian fanatic networks, countries annoyed about Panama’s relations with China or so on to play either national Panamanian politics or to aggravate the ethnic divisions that we have here but which politicians will rarely admit. Little groups of racist xenophobes who wave hangman’s nooses in front of church doors could suddenly find a new source of funding that they would not care to admit. Pushing in the other direction, perhaps Panama’s home-gown political irritants could be excoriated or even arrested as Moroccan spies.

 

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Police file criminal complaint against Jairo “Bolota” Salazar

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When police broke up a rowdy party that Colon city council member and legislator Jairo “Bolota” Salazar threw at Los Lagos on November 10, this officer was hit by a bottle thrown by someone in the crowd. Photo by the Policía Nacional.

Apparently it’s not just queers whom he wants to beat up. Cops are not amused.

by Eric Jackson

The National Police have filed a criminal complaint with the Supreme Court against double-dipping Colon politician Jairo “Bolota” Salazar, who collects paychecks as both a member of the Colon city council and as a member of the national legislature. The allegations are obstructing a police officer in the performance of his duty, and later attempting to practice law by purporting to represent a man who was arrested when police moved to break up a party of Salazar’s where the entertainment included loud noise late at night and firearms being brandished.

The high court and the legislature have long had a mutual nonaggression pact, where the magistrates rarely hold a deputy to account — even if the politician kills someone — and the National Assembly routinely declines to act in the face of the most flagrant judicial corruption. But then, conduct as brazen as police allege Salazar to have indulged in goes beyond the usual.

 

It’s my party and I’ll — wave guns around if I want to?


Most often in Panama, it’s a very bad idea to challenge a cop:


When you haven’t graduated from law school and purport to represent somebody, you probably expect impunity if you do it in front of police station video cameras:


 

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Kenia Porcell resigns as attorney general

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Now FORMER attorney general Kenia Porcell. Public Ministry photo.

Revelations force Kenia Porcell out of office

by Eric Jackson

At a late Tuesday afternoon meeting with President Cortizo, the attorney general — “Procuradora General de la Nación” — handed in her resignation.

We may hear more from her, but such initial explanations she gave were incoherent. She was caught in hacked WhatsApp messages at conniving with former president Juan Carlos Varela to reach plea bargain deals that first of all shielded Varela himself and several of his friends from investigations about fixing overpriced public construction contracts and taking kickbacks from them, and making deals to allow Odebrecht and other companies convicted of public corruption to continue working for government agencies in Panama. She said that if anyone was to call her to account, her apparent co-conspirator, Mr. Varela would have to file the complaint. She said that “Panama needs to know the truth, but the Public Ministry must end its investigation.”

According to Panama’s constitution Porcell’s replacement is an appointment that gets made by the National Assembly. But the main powers there, PRD caucus chair Benicio Robinson and the legislature’s vice president Zulay Rodríguez, are themselves tainted but their thefts from the government’s PANDEPORTES sports institute. (Are they going to charge this reporter for criminal defamation for saying that? They took the money and refuse to account for it. Whatever some judge might be bribed or bullied to say, they stole.)

So is a legislature currentlyh engaged in a “dialogue” with their younger acolytes who are well paid political nothings on campus going to appoint a replacement with a mission to look the other way? Most likely, but also most likely the present turmoil over the constitution would be aggravated. Stay tuned.

 

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Gandásegui, Constitutional protests continue despite “dialogue”

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5 de Mayo
November 12, mostly young protesters gather near the Metro trains’ Cinco de Mayo stop. From Twitter.

Youth reject reforms, demand
a Constituent Assembly

by Marco A. Gandásegui, hijo

The protests of the Panamanian youth and the people against the constitutional reforms proposed by President Laurentino Corteza are the responsibility of those in power. From the beginning, the way the problem was approached was ill calculated by Cortezo’s advisors. The first false move was to accept an exclusionary proposal to reform the Constitution, that was prepared by a group of citizens without any consultation or revision. The second error was that the executive sent it directly to the National Assembly without revising the contents of the reforms proposed. In the process of revision of the proposal by a part of the Assembly, all the Members wanted to get in their say, in total disorder and, still worse, without any partisan or ideological orientation.

The proposal of reforms that Cortizo sent to the Assembly had no technical justification nor support (neither written nor verbal). The manipulation of the package by the members of parliament converted the procedure into a circus. Each member felt free to introduce any article. The circus band stopped playing when the University of Panama raised its voice against the reform that aimed at privatizing higher education through a legislative manouevre. The proposal of a conservative member linked to business interests, touched a very sensitive nerve. The University students, supported by broad sectors of society, brought out their banners and marched from “the house of Méndez Pereira” to the Palace “Justo Arosemena” where the Assembly holds its sessions.

The University Rector, Eduardo Flores, explained to the Members and their Pretorian Guard, shielded behind the railings, what the mission of the University is and the absurdity of the article that they intended to introduce into the Constitution. Neither President Cortizo and the majority of the members of his Cabinet, nor the parliamentary Members, accepted what was proposed by Rector Flores. Nevertheless, the University had another more convincing weapon: the force of its student youth. The demonstrations of student groups from various universities filled the streets that surround the Assembly, in protest. President Cortizo gave the order to quash the article that aimed at suppressing higher education in Panama.

Following the confrontation, the young people joined the protests against the project of Constitutional reforms, objecting to both its contents and its form. To confront the generalized discontent, Cortizo appeeared on television to criticize both the assembly members and the youths, equally. He threatened the use of repression if there was no progress in the calendar of reforms that he had proposed on taking over the Presidency in July 2019.

What is most interesting in this experience is, on the one hand, the maturity and consistency of the youth movements. In addition, they have opened a dialogue with all other sectors of the country. There is just one point on which all the protesters coincide: they do not want the proposed constitutional reforms. The majority want to convene a constituent assembly with full sovereign powers. The clash with the forces of the Government is not only in the political terrain, it is also happening in the streets when the ‘anti-riot squads’ of the National Police repress the youths. There were almost one hundred detained and twice that number of injured.

The government is only waiting to see if Cortizo’s calendar is fulfilled by the end of 2020, with a plebiscite to approve or reject the proposed reforms. The government is counting on the support of the most conservative sectors of the country and everything indicates that they have the (neo-liberal) government and opposition political parties on their side. The response to the reforms by the media, which are owned by the above-mentioned sectors, has been lukewarm. The US Embassy, which has been acephalous for several years, apparently has no major interest in the reform proposals.

The young people support an objective to unite the whole people against the economic class and its government. They want to detain the process of reform. But they add to this objective the convening of an original Constituent Assembly. The struggle between the government and the governed is permanent. What changes is the balance of power. If there is a lot of discontent in the Panamanian family, it could have some probability of success in convening a Constituent Assembly. In that case, it will require work and wide-spread consultations in order to build the structure on which the new Constitution will be founded.

 

Marco A Gondásegui, Jr., is Professor of Sociology at the University of Panama and Associate Researcher with the Centro de Estudios Latinoamericnas Justo Arosemena (CELA).

 

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VarelaLeaks: true enough, but…

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EA
Ebrahim Asvat is not just some lawyer pundit. A Muslim with roots that trace back to the Indian state of Gujarat, he was director of Panama’s National Police and publisher of La Estrella and El Siglo. He’s a cautious man, not given to making wild statements. Here he opines that “Reading the WhatsApp of Varela’s adversaries I understand that the Varela Leaks are to depose the Attorney General. That’s the objective.”

Porcell may resign, but the Varela Leaks are inadmissible in court

[Editor’s take: The Varela Leaks are damning about many things. In any other country they would be hearsay but the stuff of which criminal investigations would flow. But understand what else this is:

  • A sitting president’s communications with top officials, and with diplomats representing his administration elsewhere in the world, were hacked. It’s par for the post-invasion political course to ignore all considerations of Panamanian national security, so this dimension of what has happened does not get mentioned by establishment types.
  • A Panamanian president and US ambassador were seen negotiating the lineup of Panama’s corporate mainstream media. Was the fact that some of the corporate players are stolen property mentioned but edited out, or was that just agreed upon as a given by Mr. Varela and Mr. Feeley? In any case this is a media scandal as well.
  •  This may be rather obvious, or a misdirection, or something else. The Pegasus program and the equipment to use it which were bought with Panamanian public funds have been stolen and they were last noticed by anyone who has come forward in the constructive possession of Ricardo Martinelli. For years he has been threatening people with dossiers. The Twitterverse is alive with Martinelista screeching about the Varela Leaks, with all of the pseudonymous call center screeds that were the hallmarks of his politics. However, there are other Panamanians with motives to embarrass those who have been embarrassed. Plus, any number of countries have Pegasus or systems that do the same things. The leaks are published on a website maintained in the United States. Were we to think of reasons why the US government might be involved in such a thing, we have to take into account the possibility that it is so and that there is no reason, that the US president is a man with only the shakiest sense of reason, who is surrounded by acolytes, schemers and fanatics.
  •  There are now many calls for an investigation — but under the direction of which office or person? Under which set of laws or rules? There is a generalized institutional credibility problem that has been building for years and has Panama firmly in its grip at the moment.]

In its strongest point, La Prensa weakly opines:

“We cannot fail to raise a voice, to put on the table the complex and dangerous situation in which we find ourselves.”

La Estrella reasonably points out:

“Today Panama is surprised by the chats from a telephone of former president Varela, which reveals how he conspired with attorney general Kenia Porcel to prevent himself, his friends Lasso, Duboy and others, from being prosecuted for involvement in the Odebrecht case. How Varela conspired with former Ambassador Feeley to destroy the Waked family and how negotiations were made to favor friends with contracts. This society is in shock and has not yet processed all of information leaked.”

Pseudonymous libel warning

Below we post something that’s untrue and scurrilous, but which is also a powerful part of the public discourse in this post-truth era. We do not post it to spread the libel but to criticize it.

The allegation that all of the Motta family’s fortune, or that of Stanley Motta, is a flat-out lie. But the leaks do indicate that Mr. Motta had more influence on the president and his decisions than most Panamanians would consider proper. Notice the scurrilous front persona for this screed. It’s an ever more common social media tactic of which people in democratic societies need to be aware.
 

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Polo Ciudadano, La trampa del “diálogo”

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streets

Frente a la trampa del “diálogo”: Asamblea Constituyente Originaria

por Polo Ciudadano

El paquetazo de reformas constitucionales fraguado entre la Concertación, el Ejecutivo de Cortizo y el Legislativo ha sido derrotado por la movilización juvenil y estudiantil. Ha sido derrotado porque las movilizaciones constantes, pese a la represión y las amenazas, lograron que la mayoría de la ciudadanía comprenda su carácter ilegítimo y antidemocrático. El rechazo al paquetazo constitucional es general y abarca todo el país.

Pero que haya sido derrotado no significa que esté muerto. El gobierno del PRD, la Asamblea, la Concertación, con el apoyo de los gremios empresariales y los medios de comunicación, mantienen en pie el cadáver del paquetazo de reformas constitucionales que de todos modos quieren imponerle al pueblo panameño.

Como la represión, las amenazas y las mentiras para imponer sus reformas inconsultas fracasaron, ahora el gobierno muy hábilmente de Laurentino Nito Cortizo ha ideado su “plan B”, que consiste en hacer creer al pueblo de que existe una “reforma mala”, la de los diputados, y una “reforma buena”, la de la Concertación. Falso. La Concertación carece de legitimidad para reformar la Constitución Política además de que todo lo que hizo fue inconsulto al pueblo panameño.

Cortizo pretende hacer ver que “sacando” parte de las reformas propuestas por los diputados y quedándose con el grueso de lo propuesto por la Concertación se salva el paquetazo y, con el apoyo de empresarios, medios de comunicación y partidos de la “oposición” hacerle tragar al pueblo su medicina de reformas totalmente antipopulares e ilegítimas.

A lo que suma la jugada que siempre sale en momentos críticos de movilización popular: “el diálogo”. El “diálogo” que consiste en sentar a los que muerdan el anzuelo de los jóvenes movilizados, junto con jóvenes del PRD, sectores empresariales de la Concertación, la Cámara de Comercio y la APEDE y hacerles creer que, con un par de sugerencias han “blanqueado” el paquetazo. De esta forma confunden y dividen el movimiento, como ya intentaron el miércoles 6 de noviembre con jóvenes del PRD infiltrados en la plaza 5 de Mayo, lo que fue denunciado por la juventud que se ha mantenido luchando en las calles.

El Polo Ciudadano señala con firmeza y reitera que:

  • No hay dos reformas, una buena y otra mala. El paquetazo de las reformas constitucionales en su conjunto es ilegítimo, antidemocrático, inconsulto y contra los intereses populares por su contenido.
  • Frente a la trampa del “diálogo”: seguimos en la lucha por una Asamblea Constituyente originaria, electa democráticamente, con participación del pueblo panameño en todas sus expresiones: jóvenes, indígenas, mujeres, trabajadores y trabajadoras, afrodescendientes, etc.

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Kermit’s birds / Las aves de Kermit

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Campylopterus hemileucurus, in scientific Latin. Photo © Kermit Nourse.

Violet Sabrewing / Alasable Violáceo

This spectacular bird ranges from Southeastern Mexico through Central America to Western Panama. Here you find it in Chiriqui, Veraguas and the Western Azuero. Probably its most natural environment is in the lower stories of mature canopy forests. It will be found at forest edges and in small forest clearings. It really likes heliconia patches in or near forests, and wherever there are bananas.


Este pajaro espectacular se extiende desde el sureste de México a través de América Central hasta el oeste de Panamá. Aquí lo encuentra en Chiriquí, Veraguas y el Azuero Occidental. Probablemente su entorno más natural se encuentra en el sotobosque forestal de los bosques maduros de dosel. Se encontrará en los bordes del bosque y en pequeños claros de bosque. Realmente le gustan los parches de heliconia en los bosques o cerca de ellos, y donde hay bananos.

 

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