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¿Wappin? Jazz Friday / Viernes de Jazz

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Grunhild
Grunhild Carling. Photo by Eric Jackson.

Friday jazz, ahead of the concert at Clayton

Viernes de jazz, antes del concierto en Clayton

Alice Coltrane – The Sun
https://youtu.be/EiWCxxOX3hE

Rotem Sivan – My Favorite Monster
https://youtu.be/23N75zkghqs

Naseem Alatrash – Lifta
https://youtu.be/3mo2gAe_COQ

Billie Holliday – Strange Fruit
https://youtu.be/Web007rzSOI

Thelonious Monk – Don’t Blame Me
https://youtu.be/KshrtLXBdl8

Idania Dowman – Luna Tropical
https://youtu.be/tkQJUqQjVF8

Danilo Pérez – Galactic Panama
https://youtu.be/RQfOBeEU4JA

Dizzy Gillespie – Salt Peanuts
https://youtu.be/TvIXzeDLpMw

Melissa Aldana Quartet & Teriver Cheung – Elsewhere
https://youtu.be/HPg4Tm0152U

Alex Blake Quintet & Pharoah Sanders – Now Is The Time
https://youtu.be/2Z3mMZ0yDew

Carrera Quinta – No Voy a Quedarme
https://youtu.be/iQfK2eFPNtc

Europe & Grunhild Carling – The Final Countdown
https://youtu.be/wAQ7autd61g

Andre Hayward – Blues in F
https://youtu.be/-INjvT3hxlk

Orión Lion – Genesis
https://youtu.be/i3jI5B4MxDE

Jane Bunnett and Maqueque – NPR Music Tiny Desk Concert
https://youtu.be/2yxU-_md2hE

 

 
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The independents: one may be the next president but it’s a broken process

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Graphic adapted from Aixa Jiron Polo's post on Facebook.

The independents: flawed process, little chance of any remedy

by Eric Jackson

In the runup to the 2014 elections, it was revealed that the Martinelli team was handing out gifts to voters using a comprehensive list that included such information as who is related to whom, which members of the family receive which government benefits and who works for or worked for the government. These data came from government archives that are supposed to be confidential, but the Martinelistas said that it could bought on a market that’s not generally advertised. If somebody stole the information and sold it, then that’s also a crime. Given how up to date the information was, much of it had to have been stolen during the Martinelli years.

But Martinelli had appointed a sneering partisan, Eduardo Peñaloza, as Electoral Prosecutor and there was no real investigation. The purchase of votes, also illegal, and more so when traced to government resources? The lists were used for that but Peñaloza in each case moved to dismiss complaints. But he did get overruled on many of those cases and reruns were held for some of the legislative and local races in which candidates of the Martinelli coalition had originally been declared winners. On the second time around many of those races went the other way.

By the cycle of things, Panamanian elections should be done with Peñaloza. His term was supposed to expire at the end of 2018. However, the legislature is not approving many of President Varela’s nominees and until a replacement is duly approved. It appears that this will not happen in time for the May elections, which means that there will be little or no election law enforcement from the one who is especially in charge of that.

We have already seen a bit of how that works, in the process of independent candidates qualifying for the ballot or falling short.

On the face of it, more than 1 million people signed petitions for independent candidates, but about half of these signatures were ruled invalid by the Electoral Tribunal. There were undoubtedly a lot of people who thought it was funny to sign someone else’s name on a petition. Others perhaps signed illegibly. But then there were an awful lot of dead people whose names appeared as petition signatures.

However, many of the signatures were fraudulently copied from lists of the sort that Martinelli used five years ago. A number of people filed criminal complaints about their names appearing on petitions that they did not sign. The man whose lawsuit resulted in a 2009 ruling to allow independent candidates, Juan Jované, filed a criminal complaint about the general process. This time, he concluded, “the problem with the independents was that they acted with the same sort of corruption as the political parties.”

One would-be candidate admitted to petition signatures being copied from an Electoral Tribunal list. The three-magistrate tribunal referred at least 46 signature gatherers (or purportedly such) to Eduardo Peñaloza for investigation of apparent election law crimes. None of the candidates or would-be candidates were referred for any criminal investigation.

Of the three independent candidates who made it to the May ballot, legislator and former attorney general Ana Matilde Gómez and attorney and anti-corruption activist Ricardo Lombana submitted relatively few fraudulent signatures but former legislator Marco Ameglio filed many.

Down the ballot, as at the top, few newcomers qualified. Mostly it was old-line politicians, particularly those concerned about the possibility of sinking with a partisan ship, who will be on the ballot. Ricardo Martinelli got the signatures to run for mayor of Panama City as an independent, but then was nominated by Cambio Democratico and Alianza. That, however, helped to bump acting mayor Raisa Banfield off the ballot. Cambio Democratico mayor of San Miguelito Gerald Cumberbatch will be running for re-election as an independent. Former PRD national committee member Enrique Flores will run for legislator as an independent.

However, historian and activist Olimpo Sáez, who spent many years in MOLIRENA, did not qualify to run for legislator as an independent. Neither did former National Environmental Authority secretary general Félix Wing Solís. Nor did businesswoman Ursula Kiener Ford. Nor journalist Armando Aparicio. Lesser known persons came in ahead of them, according to the Electoral Tribunal.

It turns out that a lot of the people who actually signed petitions were members of political parties. The appearance is that parties took out petitions for also-rans to bump serious candidates off of the ballot.

With the great public clamor against the current crop of politicians, it looks likely that many will be defeated by other members of the traditional parties. By some estimates, the presidential front runner is the PRD’s Nito Cortizo and his main competition is likely to be from an independent.

But overall it looks like the political caste that most Panamanians dislike will get little competition from outside that group.

 

 
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Editorials: A truce for Pope Francis?; and King’s dream

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pilgrims
Perhaps the police safety uniforms took on an unfortunate and unintended political connotation here, where they accompany a group of young French visitors to a Catholic parish church in Las Tablas. Photo by the Policía Nacional.

Should Panamanians postpone all arguments for the pope’s visit here?

There are calls — for the sakes of politeness, Panama’s reputation, the economy, security against subversives and terrorists and what have you — to put off political disputes while the many thousands of pilgrims and Pope Francis whom they have come to see and hear are in this country. 

We could embarrass ourselves in the eyes of the world in many ways. Panama has a talent for that which surfaces from time to time anyway.

However, retirees say that during the papal visit they will continue their protests for a raise in their benefits. Members of the local Venezuelan community are annoyed at the Vatican’s decision to be represented at Nicolás Maduro’s inauguration — even though the opposition that most of that community here supports decided to boycott the elections. A lot of other people, some due to basic theological differences, others incensed by the child abuse scandals that have been rocking the church for years, are taking this as the season to say nasty things about the Catholic Church or its pontiff.

Nobody should lose his or her freedom of expression on account of a religious event. As a matter of law — if Panama actually does have the rule of law — no such ban could be legally enforced. Righteous criticism of religious authorities is at least as old as Christianity. If you look at world or Panamanian history, it’s something for which many people died.

However, as a matter of persuading people to support a cause, it’s smart politics to tone down any protests as the World Youth Day pilgrimage unfolds. It’s a matter of ordinary politeness to do so.

What’s the biggest danger? We will probably know that in hindsight. But one foreseeable problem would be that one or more of the branches of government would use the distraction of the papal visit to do some infamous thing. Better if the National Assembly and the Supreme Court hold no sessions, and President Varela issue no decrees, while Pope Francis is here.

 

MLK
The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. addresses some of his many followers.
Photo from the US National Archives.

They shot the man dead. But not his dream.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a man of rather ordinary frailties, a mortal who could be and was killed. The spiritual heirs of those who hated him have finally placed one of their champions in the White House.

Lots of damage has been and is being done, but that’s likely to be ephemeral. For every white supremacist there are two Americans who have taken the most salient points of King’s message to heart.

We pay our respects on what would have been the birthday of a man who was slain nearly 51 years ago. But wherever there are Americans, his truth goes marching on. 

 

Dorothy Day

Bear in mind…


A great wind is blowing, and that gives you either imagination or a headache.

Catherine the Great


Piety requires us to honor truth above our friends.

Aristotle


It was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union… men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights and nothing less.

Susan B. Anthony

 

 
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Cross, At the beach on the border

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At the beach on the border

by Joe Cross, photos by Evelin

Tijuana on one side and California on the other. Everybody on a beach day, enjoying the winter sun. A swimmer would be on the American beach in minutes. A man might not make it far but there was no sign of Americans. I assumed they were watching. And they weren’t taking chances – so many better ways to jump the turnstile. Children were children, the women watching them. The fence was rusty and easy to cut and needing to be replaced for cosmetic purposes.

Manny and Emilio were from Guatemala. Clean guys with clean clothes, about 30. They had smart phones that were not too old or too good but with unscratched screens. Both pesos and dollars in their pockets, waiting for the cheapest good-odds way to go. And begin working for dollars – many of the few of which they would send south.

They certainly weren’t in Casablanca. So many ways to get north. The problem was staying patient. I didn’t see a soul with anything to kill the pain while waiting to get north. They didn’t seem bitter or anxious. Four to one their contention that they didn’t carry a knife or held a firearm was true. Hundred to one neither had sold drugs. Thousand to one neither had committed rape, other than perhaps date-rape. They weren’t murderers as far as I could tell.

They were little guys not missing teeth. The mothers were not going to sun on Blacks Beach in San Diego when they would be able to, or St. Tropez. Or go to the beach period. Little women who looked like their mothers. It might take two generations for any of their daughters to look like Ocasio-Cortéz, even a little bit. Or Jenny-from-the-block for that matter.

But then my grandfather would not recognize me either. Blondes, clams, costillas de cerdo, gimcrackery. Those things my folks hadn’t planned on. Ellis Island was not considered under-defended against the horde of semi-Asiatics that they in fact were. Midwest families had Svenka-girls to clean while their brothers chased chickens and milked cows. Ivanka and Jared are nice looking people, staying out of trouble and rumored to keep kosher.

Most white kids can’t get into Berkeley now. University Ave is a drag of of tall girls speaking English that works. No one saw that coming when they were blasting the tunnel. The railroad still starts on one side and comes out on the other but only a few people, afraid of flying, use it to get anywhere. Drive cross-country and you’ll see there is still room in the country for immigrants.

Be cool fool is not the only way to deal with Trump. Rally cats. Evangelicals, minions, ICE, fans, Homeland Security. Just tell them to behave. They are an embarrassment and distraction. Same as the rest of us.

 
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Estudio sobre pagos por servicios ecosistémicos

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canal watershed
Cuenca del Río Chagres, cortesía de Archivos Smithsonian

Estudio: costos y beneficios de pagos por servicios ecosistémicos

por Sonia Tejada – STRI

Las personas que viven dentro de un ecosistema usualmente administran el uso de la tierra, in-fluyendo sobre los servicios ecológicos que esta nos brinda. Una forma de mejorar la salud ambiental es por medio de incentivos económicos o Pagos por Servicios Ecosistémicos (PES), para que los terratenientes manejen sus tierras en maneras favorables al ambiente. Científicos del Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales (STRI) y colaboradores evaluaron la viabilidad de los programas de PES en la Cuenca del Canal de Panamá, desde una perspectiva económica.

Un equipo multidisciplinario de investigadores evaluó los costos y beneficios de que la Autoridad del Canal de Panamá (ACP) ofreciera contratos a los dueños de las tierras para que reforestaran usando métodos de agricultura sostenible. Evaluaron específicamente el impacto de estos esfuerzos sobre dos condiciones importantes para el tránsito de buques por el Canal de Panamá durante los meses de verano: el incremento en el flujo del agua y la reducción de la sedimentación en el Lago Gatún, el principal lago que alimenta al Canal.

También establecieron el equilibrio del mercado para este tipo de programas en la Cuenca del Canal de Panamá. Es decir, el punto en el que la oferta y demanda de servicios ecosistémicos alcanza un balance perfecto. El equilibrio del mercado se calculó con base en datos reales, recogidos por medio de encuestas a más de 700 terratenientes en toda la Cuenca. Esta es una característica única de la investigación, puesto que estudios económicos anteriores sobre programas de PES se han basado principal-mente en suposiciones.

“Nuestra investigación demuestra que hay equilibrios del mercado o límites para este tipo de programas, y que reforestar solo tiene sentido en ciertas áreas si es únicamente con el propósito de aumentar el flujo del agua y disminuir la sedimentación. Según nuestro análisis, la ACP está trabajando en los sitios correctos”, dijo Jefferson Hall, ecologista forestal de STRI y uno de los investigadores del estudio.

En cuanto a ubicaciones específicas, el equipo identificó una mayor cantidad de servicios hidrológicos en la parte este de la Cuenca que en la parte oeste.

Esta investigación fortalece las ciencias económicas ligadas a los programas de PES, al brindar mecanismos para analizar la escala de este tipo de programas y comparar sus costos y beneficios, un aspecto que la mayoría de los análisis han descuidado.

El equipo científico también reflexionó sobre la importancia de los parques nacionales, como el Parque Nacional Chagres, en las zonas altas de la Cuenca. Sugirieron que reforestar 10 mil hectáreas dentro del Parque tendría un mayor impacto sobre los servicios ecosistémicos que reforestar todas las tierras privadas que calificaban para un programa de PES. Estos cálculos no tomaron en consideración los costos de protección del parque.

“Hay muchas buenas razones para reforestar la Cuenca a través de la agricultura sostenible; por ejemplo, mejorar el sustento de sus residentes, la biodiversidad y el secuestro de carbono o la mitigación de inundaciones. Este estudio solo se fijó en dos de estas razones”, dijo Hall.

Los miembros del equipo de investigación están afiliados con STRI, el Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology de la Universidad de Alberta, el School of Forestry and Environmental Studies de la Universidad Yale, el Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Global Institute for Water Security en la Universidad de Saskatchewan, el Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering y el Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources de la Universidad de Wyoming y el Water Mission Area del Servicio Geológico de Estados Unidos. La investigación obtuvo fondos del programa Water, Sustainability and Climate de la Fundación Nacional de Ciencias de Estados Unidos, STRI, Weyerhaeuser Memorial Fund, Silicon Valley Foundation, Stanley Motta y la Familia Hoch.

 

Adamowicz, W., Calderon-Etter, L., Entem, A., Fenichel, E.P., Hall, J.S., Lloyd-Smith, P., Ogden, F.L., Regina, J.A., Rouhi Rad, M., Stallard, R.F. 2018. Assessing Ecological Infrastructure Investments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. http:// https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/01/04/1802883116.short?rss=1

 
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¿Wappin? The meaning of the blues comes in many shades

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HW
Howlin’ Wolf. Photo by Doug Fulton.

Everybody’s crying about it
Todos lloran por eso

JT Coldfire – She’s Crazy
https://youtu.be/UiHmeHZAc0s

Los Ángeles Azules & Natalia Lafourcade – Nunca Es Suficiente
https://youtu.be/k76BgIb89-s

David Gilmour – Wish You Were Here
https://youtu.be/3j8mr-gcgoI

Amaia Romero – Miedo
https://youtu.be/2XGmZBacTDo

John Lee Hooker, Carlos Santana & Etta James – Blues Boogie Jam
https://youtu.be/jRMzVMe18cA

The Corrs – Everybody Hurts
https://youtu.be/VtGZGBvb7ic

Howlin’ Wolf – Spoonful
https://youtu.be/3LFjHo7Cdrw

Romeo Santos & Juan Luis Guerra – Carmín
https://youtu.be/oJZeTxNUSC0

Janis Joplin – Ball & Chain
https://youtu.be/Xsp0hftKrCI

Yomira John – Te Que Pedí
https://youtu.be/qFXtbL6CHFY

Chrissie Hynde – Creep
https://youtu.be/lML2N4xB9GU

Elefantes & Enrique Bunbury – Duele
https://youtu.be/egxK3ArGtRM

Miles Davis – Time After Time
https://youtu.be/L5qfuqXuqkI

Lana Del Rey – Hope is a Dangerous Thing…
https://youtu.be/rY2LUmLw_DQ

Jimi Hendrix Live in Sweden 1969
https://youtu.be/PbwUH_eJ2fk

 
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Editorials: Show the kids our best; and A dangerous tolerance for election fraud

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pope
Pope Francis meets with a small, young, international group. © Mazur/catholicnews.org.uk.

Let’s behave well for our young visitors

 The kinds of ugliness that might happen are predictable in our times and place. Young Catholic pilgrims from all over the world, coming to Panama for World Youth Day. The kids getting gouged on taxi and even bus fares. Businesses raising their prices for the occasion, mostly at the expense of people who live here but with this, that or the other excuse. Vile xenophobes venting against the young foreigners.

Mostly these young people will not have much money. But if they are treated will and enjoy their stay they may come back in a few years as more ordinary tourists with more money to spend.

 World Youth Day will be a fleeting event. It will not be a sufficient show of piety to maintain Juan Carlos Varela’s Panameñista Party in control of the presidential palace. It may, if things turn out right, be a worthwhile investment in that intangible but quite valuable asset, Panama’s reputation.

Be courteous, be helpful, be protective.  It’s not only the decent thing to do, it’s a necessary defense of Panama.

 

EP
Eduardo Peñaloza failed to investigate the theft of government data for partisan election uses in the 2014 cycle. Now that malfeasance has returned to haunt us. Photo by the Fiscalía General Electoral.

Continuing crimes against privacy and election integrity

In the run-up to the 2014 elections we learned that the Martinelli team was using a sophisticated computerized campaign list that contained data that could have only come from the government, which by law had a duty to keep that stuff confidential. Who was on the government payroll, who received which public benefits, who is related to whom, those sorts of things from the Electoral Tribunal and from the various ministries.

At the time the response was that Martinelli did not abuse the public trust in the way that it appeared, that such lists can be privately bought. But then, that would just mean the receipt of stolen property, if one wanted to look at it that way. Buying a list of stolen government data is still the illegal use of confidential information.

Ricardo Martinelli’s Electoral Prosecutor Eduardo Peñaloza could not be bothered. 

Now we have seen more than a million signatures submitted by independent candidates for president, and several of these hopefuls have submitted forged signatures of names taken from confidential Electoral Tribunal data. One candidate even admitted it, and a couple of others are likely to say that they paid these contractors to gather signature and know nothing about how they did it.

So the election crimes of 2014 continue into 2019, with little prospect of any serious and impartial investigation, let alone enforcement of our laws. It’s somewhere along the slippery slope from a flawed democracy to a failed state.

 

Bear in mind…

   Never express yourself more clearly than you are able to think.

Niels Bohr    

   Power doesn’t corrupt — it unmasks.

Thelma King    

   War has become a luxury that only small nations can afford.

Hannah Arendt   

 

 
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Gandásegui, This year’s elections

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YA
Will Yanibel stay on the gravy train by adding PRD and Alianza nominations to her line on the ballot, and reaching out to Antillanos and Panagringos by emphasizing that she's an Ábrego Smith? Photo by the Asamblea Nacional.

Parties and elections in 2019 — or is it just a mirage?

by Marco A. Gandásegui, hijo

The economic powers, after the destabilization caused by the 1989 US invasion, managed to find a balance between different political forces. Each of the three traditional political parties represent clans whose goal is to reach the presidency to share the wealth of the people. Despite all the obstacles introduced to the Electoral Code, there is still a kind of chaos in the struggle for political power. Although we know who the presidential candidates are, there are no polls that say who the favorites are.

As little is known, some companies have privately reported results of surveys that they have conducted. If the elections were in early January the PRD candidate, Laurentino Cortizo, would win with 36% of valid votes. Rómulo Roux, from the CD, would follow with 23%. Third would be José Blandón of the Panameñista Party with 13%. The FAD, the party of the popular sectors and its candidate, Saúl Méndez, would have 5%. The rest would be distributed among independent candidates. If Cortizo does not make mistakes (according to the criteria of the economic powers and the United States), he can win the May elections. If at any time the Cortizo track gets entangled, the experience of 2009 can be repeated. That’s when when Martinelli and Varela were summoned by the American Embassy to join forces to defeat the PRD’s Balbina Herrera. In 2019 that would be a combination between Roux and Blandón.

There is even a third option. If in the last stretch, the ‘traditional’ candidates lose the favor of the economic powers and Washington, they can raise the flag of the independent candidate Ana Matilde Gómez. In the end, the campaign can focus on ‘demonizing’ the traditional parties and their candidates by associating them with corruption, political patronage, deceits and even deaths that have occurred in 30 years of misgovernment. The economic powers have resources and networks with the capacity to create what seems to be chaos and, at the same time, it can make a mirage appear with the solution.

On a global scale, 2019 promises to be a very difficult year with tensions centered on the reaction of the US to the economic and geopolitical rise of the Peoples Republic of China. The effects of this struggle on Latin America are unpredictable. Brazil is sailing apparently rudderless and Mexico has a leader who thinks of his country for the first time in 80 years. Panama, in turn, faces the new year with elections in May and an economy that tends toward short-term stagnation.

Panamanian presidential elections offer no novelty. The economic powers and the US Embassy have limited the national debate to issues of no substance. From 1989 to now Panama has had six presidents, three political parties and a single government program: the neoliberal “Washington Consensus.” In May the same three neoliberal parties will clash. There will be a party representing the popular sectors — the FAD — and three independent candidates.

The three neoliberal parties — Partido Revolucionario Democrático (PRD), Cambio Democrático (CD) and Partido Panameñista — are considered “traditional'” since they are not only “neoliberals” they are also defined as “Pro Mundo beneficio.” They do not offer government programs to the extent that their proposals are known and practically written on stone. In the economic sphere, they promote flexibilization (informality) of the labor force and government regulation (intervention) which benefits the sectors that are part of the economic-financial power (transit, speculator and dispossessor). Socially, they favor reduction of public services (education, health, public safety, housing and others) that reduce income for the financial sector. Culturally, traditional parties promote globalization and its anti-national values.

Although they do not present government plans, traditional parties’ operatives consider it very important to monitor the behavior of the GDP and coordinate plans to administer the national budget. In close collaboration with the IMF and the World Bank, the political party that wins the elections arrogates the “right” to manage the budget by distributing the country’s wealth in a way that best determines the political correlation of forces. Although a large part of the citizens are not informed about the meaning of these elections, they sense it and do not want to miss out on some of the handouts that come with the so-called “election festival.”

 
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¿Wappin? All you got is your soul

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SF Rock and Roll
Samantha Fish. Photo by Christophe Losberger

All that you have is your soul
Todo lo que tienes es tu alma

Tracy Chapman – All that you have is your soul
https://youtu.be/CoNtYC_XDC8

Victor Boa – Negrito
https://youtu.be/YawGVwcjIJk

Zonke – NdiliMpondo
https://youtu.be/AGI_NnTTvos

Danny Rivera – Madrigal
https://youtu.be/Dl3REvj2xf4

Temptations – Just My Imagination
https://youtu.be/ZUHbblMO4dY

Amy Winehouse – Back To Black
https://youtu.be/TJAfLE39ZZ8

Víctor Jara – Manifiesto
https://youtu.be/en8yqVxuT-U

Pink Floyd – On the Turning Away
https://youtu.be/FwbjNovSWAs

Carlos Santana – Samba Pa Ti
https://youtu.be/j5AUm_xaE9A

The Lowrider Band – City, Country, City
https://youtu.be/9BPqkFaUGVk

Dido – Hurricanes
https://youtu.be/-mfladpK0AA

Joss Stone – Right to Be Wrong
https://youtu.be/xHVSptF3_G8

Bob Marley – No Woman, No Cry
https://youtu.be/2Dq33kK9nDU

Samantha Fish – War Pigs
https://youtu.be/-M-VxlRBbcc

Chambers Brothers – Time Has Come Today
https://youtu.be/_zfgoJzOCgg

 
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Kermit’s birds ~ Las aves de Kermit

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chirp
Yellow Crowned Euphonia / Eufonia Corniamarilla / Euphonia luteicapilla / Bim Bim. Photo / Foto © Kermit Nourse.

Yellow Crowned Euphonia    
Eufonia Corniamarilla  

Mostly a lowlands bird, found in scrub, pastures with only a few trees and forest fragments. It really loves dry forests so is quite common in the Azuero. Far more common on the Pacific Side, especially the central provinces through and east of the Metro area. At either end, in Chiriqui and Darien provinces, it becomes rare. Not found over 3,000 feet. On the Atlantic side it’s found in the Bocas del Toro lowlands and in the canal area. Its range extends into Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

Primordialmente un ave de tierras bajas, que se encuentra en matorrales, pastos con solo unos pocos árboles y fragmentos de bosque. Realmente ama a los bosques secos, por lo que es bastante común en el Azuero. Mucho más común en la vertiente del Pacífico, especialmente en las provincias centrales a través y al este del área metropolitana. En ambos extremos, en las provincias de Chiriquí y Darién, se vuelve raro. No se encuentran más de 3,000 pies. En la costa del Caribe se encuentra en las tierras bajas de Bocas del Toro y en el área del canal. Su rango se extiende a Costa Rica y Nicaragua.

Video by Beny Wilson, taken on the road to Juan Hombron in Cocle.
 
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