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Bernal, Not a theory: what a criminal conspiracy is

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stormers
Scene from the trial of 24 leading Nazi criminals at Nuremberg. Three were acquitted, charges were dropped against two, seven received prison sentences and 12 of these were sentenced to hang. At the first Nuremberg trial it was held that the Nazi Party was a criminal conspiracy. Not all defendants were found guilty for all acts of this conspiracy, but certain defenses were not accepted. Following orders would not excuse guilt for murder. There were other war crimes trials, at which the principle of command responsibility was upheld – a commander has a duty to restrain subordinates from committing war crimes. Throughout the Cold War the Nuremberg Principles became something of a dead letter. Afterward, in international trials for atrocities in Rwanda, West Africa and the former Yugoslavia, and now in the proceedings of the International Criminal Court, this body of law is again being developed and enforced. US Army photo.

The joint criminal enterprise

by Miguel Antonio Bernal

The stab wounds inflicted upon Panamanian people by the ruling joint enterprise multiply without recourse. There is an urgent need for a forceful reaction from the citizenry to limit their political power before they finish destroying what is left of this country.

The latest from the governing joint enterprise has been the decision of the regents of the Inter-Institutional Council for Basic Certification of Medicine, (through Resolution No. 1 of the MINSA on March 3) with the signature of the doctors Américo Lombardo and Gerardo Victoria. It follows an order given by Cortizo, through the PRD deputy Crispiano Adames, to Minister Sucre and his advisor Alejandro Ganci, to lower the certification test score needed for doctors to be licensed to work as interns and to pursue residencies for their specialist board exams. The purpose is none other than to open the doors of privilege to unsuccessful family members and mediocre government supporters.

There are recent revelations that make it possible to say that we are under a government that, by acts and omissions, is responsible for the abuse, mistreatment, torture and rape of children in foster care institutions.

The authoritarian constitutionalism prevailing in our country has multiplied its blatant and / or covert authoritarian practices by wrapping itself around the pandemic. As a joint enterprise its achievements are increasing, but also damaging and destroying the social fabric.

The concept of joint criminal enterprise is a legal doctrine used in war crimes courts to allow the prosecution of members of a group for their actions. This doctrine holds each member of an organized group responsible for the crimes committed by the group within the common plan or purpose.

The common purpose doctrine has been applied by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia to prosecute political and military leaders for massive war crimes, including genocide, committed during the Yugoslav wars of 1991-1999.

For example, if three people commit a bank robbery and one fatally shoots a person in the process, the law finds every one of them guilty of murder. The concept of “collective responsibility” allows that more than one person can share the responsibility and punishment for the actions of another person. (See Odriozola-Gurrutxaga, Miren (March 2014), “The doctrine of the joint criminal enterprise in ad hoc tribunals and its scope of application in the Rome Statute.” Ibero-American Yearbook of International Criminal Law 1: 86-104. ISSN 2346-3120)

 

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Kermit’s birds / Las aves de Kermit

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choip
Saltarín Cuellidorado ~ Golden-collared Manakin ~ Manacus vitellinus.
Encontrado en el camino del oleoducto, Gamboa, Colón, Panamá. © Kermit Nourse.

Golden-collared Manakin
Saltarín Cuellidorado

Found only in Panama and western Colombia, the male is plump and brightly colored, while the female is a dull gray but with brightly colored legs. It’s most of all a rainforest understory bird, but also found in secondary forests, including on lands that have been cleared but are growing back. It’s found on both sides of the isthmus, more plentifully on the Atlantic Side. It’s very common in Bocas del Toro, the Veraguas Shield and the Panama Canal area.

Se encuentra solo en Panamá y el oeste de Colombia, el macho es regordete y de colores brillantes, mientras que la hembra es de un gris apagado pero con patas de colores brillantes. Es sobre todo un ave del sotobosque de la selva tropical, pero también se encuentra en bosques secundarios, incluso en tierras que han sido taladas pero que están volviendo a crecer. Se encuentra a ambos lados del istmo, más abundantemente en el lado atlántico. Es muy común en Bocas del Toro, el Escudo de Veraguas y el área del Canal de Panamá.

 

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Dinero

Estándares médicos panameños rebajados

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MINDA

Frente a las protestas de la facultad de medicina de la Universidad de Panamá,
el PRD ha reducido el puntaje necesario para obtener una licencia médica

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Peace advocates welcome Biden move to limit war powers

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Marine
The president and Congress, said one leading anti-war campaigner, “must work together to actually end the decades long fighting, killing, dying, and spending that is on automatic pilot.” A US Marine during the 2003-2011 Iraq War, which destroyed the country and killed hundreds of thousands of Iraqis and thousands of U.S. troops. USMC photo by Corporal Brian M. Henner.

“We need to make sure it’s done right”

by Brett Wilkins — Common Dreams

Longtime advocates for a more peaceful US foreign policy expressed cautious optimism Friday following news that President Joe Biden intends to work with Congress to repeal some of the authorizations that have enabled decades of unending US war and military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere.

White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki said Friday that Biden seeks to “ensure that the authorizations for the use of military force currently on the books are replaced with a narrow and specific framework that will ensure we can protect Americans from terrorist threats while ending the forever wars.”

The statement was a remarkable departure from previous administrations. The United States has been continuously at war ever since every member of Congress except Represntative Barbara Lee (D-Calif.) voted for the post-9/11 Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) that empowered then-president George W. Bush to invade Afghanistan in October 2001 and launch the worldwide so-called “War on Terror.”

We are committed to working with Congress to ensure that the authorizations for the use of military force currently on the books are replaced with a narrow and specific framework that will ensure we can protect Americans from terrorist threats while ending the forever wars.

— Jen Psaki (@PressSec) March 5, 2021

In addition to the September 2001 AUMF, Congress passed another (pdf) just over a year later to allow the 2003 invasion and occupation of Iraq.

The Bush, Obama, and Trump administrations subsequently claimed and exercised expanded war powers. The results: Nearly 20 years of ceaseless war, 10 countries invaded or attacked by American forces, US troops in scores of nations, hundreds of thousands of lives lost, tens of millions of people displaced, and trillions of dollars spent — with no end in sight.

The White House’s announcement Friday came two days after Senators Tim Kaine (D-Va.) and Todd Young (R-Ind.) reintroduced a resolution to repeal the 1991 and 2002 AUMFs against Iraq — but not the 2001 War on Terror authorization.

The strike in Syria exemplifies why Congress must take action to repeal the 2001 and 2002 AUMF. No single person should have the power to authorize military force.

The era of forever wars must end. https://t.co/nvPQQ6T0cc

— Barbara Lee (@BLeeForCongress) February 27, 2021

Peace Action executive director Jon Rainwater told Common Dreams that while the announcement from the Biden White House comes as “welcome news” — a development that “will allow Congress to step up and take its rightful role as a body that decides whether or not the country engages in an endless war” — his group meets it with “very cautious optimism.”

“Getting at the legal unpinning for endless war is critical,” said Rainwater, “but it doesn’t truly get at the heart of this life and death matter.” He further stressed that Biden and Congress “must work together to actually end the decades long fighting, killing, dying, and spending that is on automatic pilot.”

“That means bringing all US troops home from far-flung war zones from Syria to Afghanistan,” said Rainwater. “That means ending the US airstrikes that tragically often kill civilians and only serve as a recruitment pretext for the very forces the US is fighting.”

It’s good to narrow (better yet eliminate) the AUMF, but all the law is, as its name suggests, is *authorization* for the President to use force *if* he chooses to do so. If Biden is really against “forever wars,” he can just stop ordering constant bombing of multiple countries. https://t.co/Kg3DQZPq2o

— Glenn Greenwald (@ggreenwald) March 5, 2021

Medea Benjamin, co-founder of the women-led peace group CodePink, said the organization supports repealing the AUMFs, “but this won’t be enough to stop this or other administrations from undertaking unauthorized military attacks.”

“The recent case in point is the February 25 airstrike in Syria,” Benjamin told Common Dreams. “The Biden administration didn’t use the AUMFs as justification. Instead it used an arguably more dangerous claim of self-defense as outlined in both Article II of the Constitution and Article 51 of the UN Charter.”

“So yes, we should get rid of the AUMFs that date back from the 9/11 attacks,” added Benjamin, “but we also need to rein in the executive’s broad claim of self-defense when it is really carrying out offensive retaliatory attacks that can drag us into a full-scale conflict. Any such attacks should not be undertaken without congressional approval. Congress should push back on the administration by invoking the War Powers Act of 1973 to prohibit further unconstitutional airstrikes on Syria.”

CVA statement on call for new AUMF, rebalancing of constitutional war powers – Concerned Veterans for America. We applaud President Biden’s willingness to seek a new AUMF to rein in and end our forever wars. – ⁦@NateJAndersonhttps://t.co/BkQ6OAcQ3U

— Jimmie T. Smith (@JimmieTSmith) March 5, 2021

Phyllis Bennis, director of the New Internationalism Project at the Institute for Policy Studies, noted the “serious limitations” in the Kaine-Young proposal, most notably its omission of the 2001 AUMF.

“That means it fails to challenge the congressional authority that has been used more than any other in justifying — however much of a stretch is required — far-flung military activities that have killed people across the world in the name of fighting terrorism,” Bennis told Common Dreams.

“There is another danger,” warned Bennis, “if repealing the existing AUMF is merely a cover for passage of a new authorization designed to give presidents permanent authority to go to war.”

In a statement, Win Without War executive director Stephen Miles said “it is long past time to repeal the blank checks for endless war that are the 2001 and 2002 AUMFs” but that “we need to make sure it’s done right.” That means not only repealing the authorizations, said Miles, but also “democratically debating whether or not more war will make the United States or the world more secure.”

“Let’s be clear,” added Miles, “repealing the AUMFs only to replace them is not an end to forever wars.”

 

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¿Wappin? Malo / Bad

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Attica
“We are not beasts and we do not intend to be beaten or driven as such. What has happened here is but the sound before the fury of those who are oppressed.”

Canciones para cuando eres Malo por definición
Songs for when you’re bad by definition

John Lee Hooker – Bad Like Jesse James
https://youtu.be/r_ZVrR6lD4s

Linda Ronstadt – You’re No Good
https://youtu.be/6ysu2aUCwgk

Rubén Blades – Sicarios
https://youtu.be/sF2InmynRjE

George Thorogood – Bad to the Bone
https://youtu.be/nqgUG_JVzCs

Wendy O. Williams – Reform School Girls
https://youtu.be/E9UHpgWYH3I

Flora Purim – Casa Forte
https://youtu.be/JN9ZsDIasZU

Hello Seahorse! – Criminal
https://youtu.be/3isv2xskFEw

Johnny Cash – Hurt
https://youtu.be/8AHCfZTRGiI

Bruce Springsteen – Darkness at the Edge of Town
https://youtu.be/qBk3cDAepbg

Chrissy Hynde – Creep
https://youtu.be/lML2N4xB9GU

Paul Kantner & Grace Slick – Diana
https://youtu.be/Rtn8hhf591E

Joan Baez – Mary Hamilton
https://youtu.be/r-U1TR3y0Is

Carlos Martínez – El Presidiario
https://youtu.be/gkAdQF42em8

The Slickers – Johnny Too Bad
https://youtu.be/lRm7j2UL3YY

Archie Shepp – Attica Blues
https://youtu.be/xzcaO1CfBlo

 

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¿Cuántos corales hay en el Océano Pacífico?

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STRI1
Amphiprion en la repisa. Foto por David Williamson.

Medio billón de corales: el primer recuento de corales del mundo impulsa a repensar los riesgos de la extinción

por STRI

Por primera vez, los científicos han evaluado cuántos corales hay en el Océano Pacífico y han evaluado su riesgo de extinción. (En este artículo, “billón” se usa en el sentido europeo – un millón de millones – en lugar del sentido estadounidense de mil millones.)

Mientras que la respuesta a “¿cuántas especies de coral existen?” es algo que podemos buscar en Google, hasta ahora los científicos no sabían cuántas colonias de coral individuales hay en el mundo.

“En el Pacífico, estimamos que hay aproximadamente medio billón de corales”, comentó el autor principal del estudio, el Dr. Andy Dietzel del Centro de Excelencia ARC para Estudios de Arrecifes de Coral de la Universidad James Cook (Coral CoE at JCU).

“Se trata de la misma cantidad de árboles en el Amazonas o de aves en el mundo”.

Los resultados son cruciales para la investigación y conservación de los corales y los arrecifes de coral a medida que disminuyen en todo el mundo, debido a los efectos del cambio climático.

“Necesitamos conocer la abundancia de una especie para evaluar su riesgo de extinción”, comentó el Dr. Dietzel. “Sin embargo, hay muy pocos datos sobre la mayoría de las especies de plantas y animales salvajes de la Tierra, no solo los corales”.

El Dr. Dietzel comentó que las ocho especies de coral más comunes en la región tienen cada una un tamaño de población superior a los 7,800 millones de personas en la Tierra.

Los hallazgos sugieren que, si bien una pérdida local de coral puede ser devastadora para los arrecifes de coral, el riesgo de extinción global de la mayoría de las especies de coral es menor de lo estimado anteriormente.

En cambio, las extinciones podrían desarrollarse en un período de tiempo mucho más largo debido a los amplios rangos geográficos y los enormes tamaños de población de muchas especies de coral.

El coautor, el profesor Sean Connolly, de Coral CoE at JCU y el Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales, comentó que el nuevo análisis del estudio de las 80 especies que la UICN considera que tienen un riesgo elevado de extinción muestra que 12 de esas especies tienen tamaños de población estimados de más de mil millones de colonias.

“Como ejemplo, el coral dedo, Porites nigrescens, se encuentra entre las diez especies más abundantes que examinamos. Tampoco se considera que sea altamente susceptible al blanqueamiento de los corales, sin embargo, actualmente está catalogado por la UICN como vulnerable a la extinción global”, comentó el profesor Connolly.

El coautor, el profesor Michael Bode de Coral CoE at JCU y la Universidad Tecnológica de Queensland, comentó: “Un tercio de las especies más raras en nuestro análisis, que cubren el diez por ciento inferior de la abundancia de especies, están, no obstante, incluidas en la lista de la UICN como de menor preocupación”.

El estudio midió el tamaño de la población de más de 300 especies de coral individuales en arrecifes en todo el Océano Pacífico, desde Indonesia hasta la Polinesia Francesa. Los científicos utilizaron una combinación de mapas de hábitats de arrecifes de coral y recuentos de colonias de coral para estimar la abundancia de especies.

El coautor, el profesor Terry Hughes de Coral CoE at JCU, comentó que los resultados del estudio tienen importantes implicaciones para la gestión y restauración de los arrecifes de coral.

“Contamos un promedio de 30 corales por metro cuadrado de hábitat de arrecifes. Esto se traduce en decenas de miles de millones de corales en la Gran Barrera de Coral, incluso después de las pérdidas recientes por los extremos climáticos”, comentó el profesor Hughes.

“La restauración de corales no es la solución al cambio climático. Tendría que cultivar alrededor de 250 millones de corales adultos para aumentar la cobertura de coral en la Gran Barrera de Coral en solo un uno por ciento”.

Comentó que el estudio destaca la oportunidad de actuar para mitigar las amenazas a las especies de arrecifes, y mucho antes de que el cambio climático provoque extinciones globales, para hacer posible una eventual recuperación de los conjuntos de arrecifes de coral.

“El desafío ahora es proteger las poblaciones silvestres de corales, porque nunca podríamos reemplazar más que un pequeño porcentaje de ellos. Es mejor prevenir que curar”, comentó el profesor Hughes.

“Dado el enorme tamaño de estas poblaciones de coral, es muy poco probable que se enfrenten a una extinción inminente. Todavía hay tiempo para protegerlos del calentamiento antropogénico, pero solo si actuamos rápidamente para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero”.

Coral pocilloporid en el Mar del Coral. Foto por Andreas Dietzel.

Referencia: Dietzel A, Bode M, Connolly S, Hughes T. (2021). ‘The population sizes and global extinction risk of reef building coral species at biogeographic scales’. Nature Ecology & Evolution. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-021-01393-4

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Coral acroporido en el Mar del Coral. Foto por Andreas Dietzel.
 

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The Panama News blog links, March 3, 2021

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The Panama News blog links

a Panama-centric selection of other people’s work
una selección Panamá-céntrica de las obras de otras personas

Canal, Maritime & Transportation / Canal, Marítima & Transporte

American Journal of Transportaion, ACP’s January carbon emissions estimates
Hellenic Shipping News, Taking Panama’s ship registry into the future
Mundo Marítimo, AMP licitando operación de Astilleros Balboa

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Economy / Economía

FOCO, La economía de Panamá se derrumbó un 17.9% en 2020
EFE, España refuerza controles en oficinas de cooperación tras desfalco en Panamá
BBC, Amazon rainforest plots sold via Facebook Marketplace ads
ICIJ, Lawyers, accountants play key role in cross-border financial crime, OECD warns
Varoufakis, The Goldilocks stimulus myth
BBC, Por qué Wall Street está tan interesado en comprarles deuda

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Protesting pineapple workers in Gualaca, demanding reinstatement of their union contract that was suspended under Nito’s decrees.

Science & Technology / Ciencia & Tecnología

Smithsonian Magazine, The genetics of shrinking
Mongabay, No silver bullets in conservation
MIT Technology Review, Lithium-metal batteries will speed electric car development
CBC, Archaeologists find intact ceremonial chariot near Pompeii
Reuters: Elizabeth Ann, the first cloned ferret, spurs hope for endangered species

News / Noticias

La Prensa, ‘Destruyeron mi vida y no sé cómo repararla’
Reuters, Martinelli’s plane seized in Guatemala
La Estrella, Caraballo toma posesión como procurador
TVN, El orden de vacunación
Sahara Press Service, The Saharawi Republic has an embassy here
BBC, Perú le reconozca derecho a la eutanasia
infobae, Duque se pronunció sobre la carta que le envió Biden

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LBJ Library photo by Lauren Gerson.
“Send me to help clear the rubble of racism still strewn across this country. Send me to be one of the bulldozers on behalf of equality and in the cleanup crews against injustice. Send me to disrupt injustice.”
Vernon Jordan

Opinion / Opiniones

West, My ridiculous situation at Harvard
Santana Rodríguez, El asesinato de civiles por las Fuerzas Armadas en Colombia
Gascón, Biden, bin Salman y Khashoggi
Fischer, Building back together
Gómez Nadal & Chato Carral, Carta abierta a Panamá
Pinnock, ¿Y quién controla al Estado?: una pregunta crítica obligada
Turner, A 75 años de aprobación de la Constitución de 1946
Yao: El CROAN, ¿Retorno de las bases militares de EEUU a Panamá?
Arosemena de Troitiño, Agendas ideológicas y los derechos de protección al menor

5

Culture / Cultura

Variety, ‘Judas and the Black Messiah’ counters lies about Black Panthers
Sensacine, La peor película de artes marciales de la historia es española
Den of Geek, Ahmet Zappa talks legacy, labels, and his father’s inventions
Reuters, Señorita Panama pageant opens to transgender women
The Forward, Yes, Dr. Seuss wrote racist books. He still has things to teach us.

 

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Dinero

Editorial: A course correction at SENNIAF and other institutions

0
dog germs or something
A protester in front of SENNIAF. So far nobody has been arrested for the abuse at facilities overseen by that government institution, but several nonviolent protesters have been arrested for “altering the public order.” The law enforcement priorities are rather obvious. As, for that matter, are the delusions in high places.

SENNIAF and its environment

First, let’s hold the hysteria and the sadism, as we let our indignation and common sense freely flow.

Say WHAT? Well, of course there are criminal laws on the books about adult men having sexual relations with minors, especially with those who are less able to defend themselves due to this or that disability. Those laws ought to be enforced. But let’s dispense with the talk about how cruel their punishment should be. Innocent until proven guilty, and then the law provides the possible penalties if guilt is proven.

However, when minor girls in custody paid for by the state become pregnant, there needs to be no criminal conviction for the state to take administrative action to protect those in its charge.

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And let’s consider the situation of a minor in state-ordered custody, in an institution or in foster care, or for that matter with one or more parents who don’t particularly care, who is impregnated by an adult. Panama’s abortion law sets a 60-day limit on abortions in the case of rape, but there has to be a police report sufficient for prosecutors to bring a case. And can you blame a girl for not knowing this, given that such and many other matters are forbidden topics in schools that by law are forbidden to impart sex education? If a girl does find out in some timely manner, in Panama children have no standing, can’t go to some office and have a guardian ad litem appointed. For Panama’s girls, there is in effect no rape exception to the draconian abortion laws. The mothers of rich girls can fly them out to Miami, Puerto Rico or some other jurisdiction where abortion is legal, or pay to have a medical abortion in a highly illegal black market. That’s not any kid who is in a SENNIAF-subsidized facility.

The use of the criminal law with respect to others to curtail the human rights of Panama’s girls is an ugly vestige of the Holy Inquisition. The churches that pressed for and got their laws should now be judged by the bitterness of the fruit that their political interventions have borne. SENNIAF is, in one great part, about unhealthy relationships between the churches and the Panamanian state.

~ ~

Reduce all accountability to a legal system that DOESN’T have Ricky Martinelli behind bars for the rest of his life? That sort of sludge seeps down to all levels of state and society. And again, this notion that absent a criminal conviction nothing can be done or should be said is legally wrong and morally repugnant when it comes to public administration.

As the long-festering SENNIAF scandals were bubbling toward the surface and the president knew or should have known that they would become public in short order, what did he do? He promoted Carla García, the daughter of his vice minister of the presidency and deputy director of SENNIAF upstairs to be governor of Panama province.

After dodging questions as long as she could, García gave a televised interview in which she pleaded that what went on in the SENNIAF-sponsored foster care facilities was not her department.

Imagine that. A director is incapacitated in some way or another and the number two person has to step in, but she has compartmentalized her knowledge and responsibility to have zero competence at a major part of what the organization does.

That’s unacceptable. It was unacceptable at SENNIAF and it makes García unacceptable as governor. Whose daughter she is, and what her party credentials are, pale beside this glaring disqualification.

That you had a SENNIAF board that put up with this is also a disqualification. As the protesters demand, all of them should also go.

~ ~

Let us, however, step back and take a broader view. The very serious abuses – not only sexual ones, but also things like kids being fed dog food and mentally disturbed youngsters being held in shackles and told to pray – affected maybe 10 or 12 of 50 SENNIAF-subsidized facilities. In the places where there were serious problems, not every person was involved.

There are complaints that a bunch of the facilities lacked proper licenses. This is an administrative failure, born of the political patronage system. It’s a treatment of government contracts as plums for favored institutions. It’s an attitude that people who get government jobs at places like SENNIAF are on a five-year ride of good pay with little or no work.

And what about the estimates bandied about in which some 90 percent of those working in SENNIAF-funded facilities have no documented qualifications?

There we should be more careful, and look beyond this particular government agency and the mostly religious organizations with which it contracts to the whole culture of care giving in Panama. From day care for kids to nursing homes, from places for the disabled to penal institutions, proper care for human beings is overall deficient here. You don’t need to take it from an editor whose stepfather died of septicemia from infected bed sores contracted at one of Panama’s better nursing homes to discover this, but maybe that’s a good starting point.

There are two “solutions” that ought to be rejected out of hand. Hiring the most expensive company with the most connected and well-dressed CEO available – or maybe headed by someone less dripping with jewelry and more forthcoming with kickbacks – would be typical. Instantly requiring people to have educational credentials to work at the care of other human beings would also be impractical.

Let’s face it: SENNIAF exists as part of a neoliberal privatization scheme, whereby the state contracts out its responsibilities to cheaper private contractors. Cheaper because the majority of the work force, the people who care for people, receive terribly low wages. Some of these folks have little in the way of formal education, but had been caring for people for much of their lives before taking their jobs, and have learned skills on the their jobs. Fire them all and demand greater credentials? In Panamanian culture that’s only a recipe for fraud.

But we CAN create specific courses at all levels of our education system to improve the quality of care. We CAN have qualified people come in and teach the staff at all institutions that care for human beings in specific skills. New faculties with more administrators who must ride around in the luxury apropos to their new positions? Forget that. But many university departments ought to be called upon to send out some of their faculty members on extension projects designed to improve the skills of low-paid care givers.

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Do we want to allow vile government-paid “influencers” to divert attention by things like slut-shaming teenage girls who get pregnant? As all of this shakes out there will be occasion to assign blame. Some of it will fall upon these finger-pointers.

But moving ahead, we should be thinking about doing properly things that were not done properly. Not as a matter of punishment, but as doing right for the people who depend on the government for care.

  

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Who was the first Latin American? Cortés – not Columbus. Columbus stayed on his boat in Portobelo Bay and wouldn’t land. He was old, like Europe.

Omar Torrijos

 

Bear in mind…

 

 

No sex, no drugs, no Siggie Freud – so why would anyone read it?

Molly Ivins

 

Falsehood and insincerity, unsuitable as they seem to the dignity of public transactions, offend us with a less degrading idea of meanness, than when they are found in the intercourse of private life.

Edward Gibbon

 

Until you’ve lost your reputation, you never realize what a burden it was.

Margaret Mitchell

 

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The murder of Jamal Khashoggi: a redacted US intelligence report

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CIA

Classified By: █
Derived From: █
Declassify On: █

(U) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

(U) This report is provided by the ODNI. Questions should be directed to the NIO for Near East.

█ We assess that Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman approved an
operation in Istanbul, Turkey to capture or kill Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.

• █ We base this assessment on the Crown Prince’s control of decisionmaking in the
Kingdom, the direct involvement of a key adviser and members of Muhammad bin Salman’s protective detail in the operation, and the Crown Prince’s support for using violent measures to silence dissidents abroad, including Khashoggi.

• █ Since 2017, the Crown Prince has had absolute control of the Kingdom’s security
and intelligence organizations, making it highly unlikely that Saudi officials would have
carried out an operation of this nature without the Crown Prince’s authorization.

█ Assessing the Saudi Government’s Role in the Killing of Jamal Khashoggi

█ We assess that Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman approved an
operation in Istanbul, Turkey to capture or kill Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi. We base this assessment on the Crown Prince’s control of decision making in the Kingdom since 2017, the direct involvement of a key adviser and members of Muhammad bin Salman’s protective detail in the operation, and the Crown Prince’s support for using violent measures to silence dissidents abroad, including Khashoggi. Since 2017, the Crown Prince has had absolute control of the Kingdom’s security and intelligence organizations, making it highly unlikely that Saudi officials would have
carried out an operation of this nature without the Crown Prince’s authorization.

• █ At the time of the Khashoggi murder, the Crown Prince probably fostered an
environment in which aides were afraid that failure to complete assigned tasks might result in him firing or arresting them. This suggests that the aides were unlikely to question Muhammad bin Salman’s orders or undertake sensitive actions without his consent.
• █ The I5-member Saudi team that arrived in Istanbul on 2 October 2018 included
officials who worked for, or were associated with, the Saudi Center for Studies and Media Affairs (CSMARC) at the Royal Court. At the time of the operation, CSMARC was led by Saud al-Qahtani, a close adviser of Muhammad bin Salman, who claimed publicly in mid-2018 that he did not make decisions without the Crown Prince’s approval.

• █ The team also included seven members of Muhammad bin Salman’s elite personal
protective detail, known as the Rapid Intervention Force (RIF). The RIF – a subset of the Saudi Royal Guard – exists to defend the Crown Prince, answers only to him, and had directly participated in earlier dissident suppression operations in the Kingdom and abroad at the Crown Prince’s direction. We judge that members of the RIF would not have participated in the operation against Khashoggi without Muhammad bin Salman’s approval.

• █ The Crown Prince viewed Khashoggi as a threat to the Kingdom and broadly
supported using violent measures if necessary to silence him. Although Saudi officials had pre-planned an unspecified operation against Khashoggi we do not know how far in advance Saudi officials decided to harm him.

█ We have high confidence that the following individuals participated in, ordered, or were otherwise complicit in or responsible for the death of Jamal Khashoggi on behalf of Muhammad bin Salman. We do not know whether these individuals knew in advance that the operation would result in Khashoggi’s death.

• (U █) Saud al-Qahtani
• █ Maher Mutreb
• █Naifal-Arifi
• █ Mohammed al-Zahrani
• █ Mansour Abahussain
• █ Badr al-Utaybah
• █ Abdul Aziz Al Hawsawi

• █ Waleed Abdullah Al Shihri
• █ Khalid Al Utaybah
• █ Tha’ar Al Harbi
• █ Fahd Shiahb Al Balawi
• █ Meshal al-Bustani
• █ Turki Al Shihri
• (U) Mustafa Al Madani
• (U) Saif Saad Al
• █ Ahmed Zayed Asiri
• █ Abdulla Mohammed Alhoeriny
• █ Yasir Khalid Alsalem
• █ Ibrahim al-Salim
• (U) Salah Al Tubaigy
• (U) Mohammed Al Utaybah

 

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Coalición de Mujeres, Ley 120

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cerdas
Sin haber publicado la enmienda en la página de web de la legislatura, la Asamblea Nacional ya aprobó una nueva ley de adopciónes que permite que los fetos de niñas menores de edad violadas y embarazadas sean “adoptados en el útero”, obligando a las niñas a ser esclavas no remuneradas y dando derechos de propiedad a compradores de bebés que están obligadas a dar luz. Fue propuesto por neofascistas y  ultraderechistas religiosas habituales. Veremos si el presidente Cortizo lo firma. Y si lo hace, si otros países imponen sanciones por trata de personas a cualquiera de los involucrados.
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